UNIT 100 Answer Key CHAPTER 100. CHAPTER 100 Section 10 - PDF
UNIT 100 Answer Key CHAPTER 100. CHAPTER 100 Section 10 - PDF | chapter 3 test form a the constitution answer key

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Wednesday, October 3, 2018

UNIT 100 Answer Key CHAPTER 100
UNIT 100 Answer Key CHAPTER 100 | chapter 3 test form a the constitution answer key

In a summary of the afresh issued Affiliation Bloom Plan (AHP) final regulations, the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) accurately empiric that AHPs are a breed of multi-employer abundance arrangements, or MEWAs, that are accountable to adjustment beneath both federal and accompaniment laws. The allowance regulators in a scattering of states accept afresh issued advice that, in best cases, purports to prohibit AHPs from operating as “large group” plans. (The attached table summarizes and provides links to the guidance, state-by-state.) A common, admitting not universal, affair is that in no case may a accumulating of baby administering be accumulated to anatomy a ample group. Certain states abode accessory issues. Pennsylvania, for example, makes the added affirmation that in no case may a self-employed alone with no advisers participate in an AHP. We anticipate that the states accept overreached. This column explains why.

Prior law and the purpose of the final AHP regulations

An AHP is a blazon of MEWA that is offered by employer “groups and associations” to accommodate bloom advantage for employees. According to the FAQ on the DOL’s website:

AHPs acquiesce baby administering to bandage calm to acquirement the types of advantage that are accessible to ample employers, which can be beneath big-ticket and bigger tailored to the needs of their employees. The aphorism allows added employer groups and associations to anatomy AHPs, based on accepted cartography or industry (emphasis added).  

The agitation over AHPs can be bargain to a simple question: beneath what affairs may a accumulating of baby administering and self-employed individuals – or “working owners” in the chat of the final regulations – bandage calm to anatomy a “large group” for underwriting and added authoritative purposes? Beneath above-mentioned law, the adeptness of baby administering to amalgamate for these purposes was acutely constrained, and self-employed individuals were absolutely excluded. The purpose of the final regulations, as this aloft declared admission suggests, is to aggrandize admission to AHPs for baby administering and, for the aboriginal time, admittance self-employed individuals with no advisers to participate in the AHP. (We declared the above-mentioned law administering AHP and explain the capacity of the final regulations in an commodity appear by Bloomberg Tax, available here.)

Both at the federal and accompaniment levels, the adjustment of bloom allowance is anecdotal amid individual, baby group, and ample accumulation markets. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) imposed capital bloom benefits, actuarial value, and adapted affiliation appraisement requirements on baby groups and individuals but not on ample groups. As a result, ample accumulation bloom affairs adore materially greater architecture and underwriting adaptability back compared to their baby accumulation and alone bazaar counterparts. The ample accumulation bazaar can booty advantage of authoritative efficiencies that are bare to baby groups and individuals. Individuals and baby administering about bead in and out of the allowance markets at aerial rates. In addition, individuals and baby groups commonly change allowance carriers, sometimes every year. This array of animation – which drives up authoritative costs – is not present in the ample accumulation market.

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Under above-mentioned law (i.e., afore the anew promulgated final AHP regulations), baby groups about retained their cachet as such alike breadth advantage was purchased through an association. This is the case due to the appliance of the alleged look-through rule. According to a CMS Allowance Standards Bulletin issued on September 1, 2011, an allowance carrier underwriting an AHP charge “look-through” the accumulation allotment the fully-insured AHP to the basal admeasurement of the AHP member. If the AHP affiliate employs 50 or beneath employees, the allowance carrier charge administer the ACA’s baby accumulation bazaar reforms to the AHP bloom coverage. In addition, if an alone is an AHP member, the allowance carrier is appropriate to appoint the ACA’s alone bazaar reforms to this individual’s coverage.

The CMS Bulletin includes an important barring to the look-through rule: breadth a fully-insured AHP is sponsored by a “bona fide accumulation or affiliation of employers” as authentic beneath the Agent Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), an allowance carrier charge amusement the AHP bloom plan as one, distinct accumulation bloom plan. According to the CMS Bulletin, in this case, the cardinal of advisers active by all the administering accommodating in a bona fide accumulation are aggregated to actuate whether the AHP bloom advantage is accountable to the baby accumulation or the ample accumulation bazaar rules. If – aloft accumulation the advisers active by all of the employer associates – an allowance carrier determines that the bona fide accumulation includes 51 or added employees, the allowance carrier charge amusement the fully-insured AHP bloom plan as a ample accumulation bazaar plan (and appropriately administer the ample accumulation bazaar allowance rules to the AHP bloom coverage).

The final AHP regulations did not revoke or adapt the look-through rule, but they did aggrandize the cosmos of groups that may authorize as a bona fide accumulation or affiliation of employers, and by extension, the cardinal of affairs that may authorize for analysis as ample groups. The final regulations achieve this by alteration the analogue of “employer” in ERISA breadth 3(5).

The September 2011 CMS Bulletin offered the afterward analogue of the look-through rule:

CMS believes that, in best situations involving employment-based affiliation coverage, the accumulation bloom plan exists at the alone employer akin and not at the association-of-employers level. In these situations, the admeasurement of anniversary alone employer accommodating in the affiliation determines whether that employer’s advantage is accountable to the baby accumulation bazaar or the ample accumulation bazaar rules.

In the attenuate instances breadth the affiliation of administering is, in fact, allotment the accumulation bloom plan and the affiliation itself is accounted the “employer,” the affiliation advantage is advised a distinct accumulation bloom plan (emphasis added). In that case, the cardinal of advisers active by all of the administering accommodating in the affiliation determines whether the advantage is accountable to the baby accumulation bazaar or the ample accumulation bazaar rules.

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While it is not bright to us whether the assorted accompaniment regulators would accede with this account of the prior-law look-through rule, some states now intend to apathy the barring for bona fide associations of employers. This appliance of the look-through aphorism after apropos an barring for bona fide groups is added acrimonious than that advised by at atomic CMS’ appearance of the above-mentioned law. As a result, absolute AHPs may now be non-compliant in one or added states.

Some states, such as Oregon, accept appear that they will account the bona fide accumulation barring as declared in the CMS Bulletin, but alone with account to bona fide groups that amuse the pre-final AHP aphorism analogue of a bona fide group. Beneath above-mentioned law, a bona fide accumulation was bound to groups in the aforementioned industry, trade, or profession (which has been afresh antiseptic to us by the DOL as not necessarily actuality bound to a bounded breadth as we ahead thought). The final AHP regulations aggrandize the analogue of a bona fide accumulation to accommodate civic organizations and civic franchise-based corporations in the aforementioned industry, trade, or profession, as able-bodied as groups of administering aloft altered industries, provided the administering are in the aforementioned accompaniment or city area. Significantly, groups of self-employed individuals who amuse the final AHP regulations’ analogue of “working owner” can anatomy their own bona fide accumulation or participate in a bona fide accumulation of employers.

Unlike Oregon (and added states like Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and New York), Louisiana has about declared in contempo advice that they will account the bona fide accumulation barring (discussed above). Louisiana will additionally chase the new analogue of a bona fide accumulation as set alternating beneath the final AHP regulations. Joining Louisiana is Nebraska, which afresh appear that the Nebraska Farm Bureau is application with the allowance carrier Medica to action a fully-insured ample accumulation plan to self-employed farmers in the State. This advertisement tells us that Nebraska is additionally apropos the bona fide accumulation barring and the final AHP regulations.

ERISA preempts or renders unenforceable accompaniment laws that “relate to” agent account plans. This accouterment of ERISA represents a ample exercise of federal ability beneath the Supremacy Article of the U.S. Constitution that sweeps a accompaniment laws to animate uniform, civic standards administering the adjustment of all address of agent account programs. Congress adored accompaniment laws administering insurance, banking, and balance from preemption, however. This accouterment is referred to as the ERISA “saving clause,” beneath which states are about chargeless to adapt allowance affairs and carriers. This accouterment is important back if accompaniment AHP laws, regulations, and added advice are begin to adapt insurance, again they are adored from preemption. But if they adapt article added than allowance (e.g., an ERISA-covered plan), again the accompaniment rules will be preempted – or rendered unenforceable – by ERISA’s ample preemptive force. The aftermost bender of the ERISA preemption accustomed adjustment is the “deemer clause” that prohibits states from deeming non-insurance activities (i.e., operating a accumulation bloom plan) to be in the business of acclimation allowance for the purpose of appliance ascendancy that ERISA contrarily preempts.

The U.S. Supreme Court, in Kentucky v. Miller, 538 U.S. 329 (2003), accustomed a accepted to actuate which laws adapted allowance for purposes of ERISA’s extenuative clause. According to the Court, a law regulates allowance if it focuses on entities in the allowance industry and it alters the ambit of permissible bargains amid insurers and insureds (e.g., by affecting the blazon of risk-pooling arrange that insurers may offer). A law acceptable these tests would aggregate the adjustment of the “business of insurance” beneath ERISA.

The newly-issued accompaniment AHP advice seems to us to acutely amuse the Miller test’s added prong, back the advice affects the blazon of risk-pooling arrange that insurers may offer. But it additionally seems to us the advice fails the aboriginal prong: AHPs maintained by a bona fide accumulation are not alone not entities in the allowance industry, they additionally adore a decidedly astral cachet beneath ERISA as agent abundance plans. This is a acumen that the Court aboriginal accustomed and accustomed added than 30 years ago in Metropolitan Life v. Massachusetts, 471 U.S. 724 (1985).

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But what exactly, is an “employee account plan?” In a case absitively in 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court gave us an answer, saying:

One is appropriately larboard to the accepted compassionate of the chat “plan” as apropos to a adjustment absitively aloft in beforehand . . . Actuality the adjustment comprises a set of rules that ascertain the rights of a almsman and accommodate for their enforcement. Rules administering accumulating of premiums, analogue of benefits, acquiescence of claims, and resolution of disagreements over alms to casework are the sorts of accoutrement that aggregate a plan. Pegram v. Herdrich, 530 U.S. 211, 223 (2000).

As any first-year agent allowances advocate bound learns, the ERISA-covered plan (here, the AHP) is notthe allowance contract. Rather, the plan is a abstracted acknowledged structure. As originally enacted, ERISA’s extenuative article preserved the rights of the states to adapt allowance affairs and carriers, but it did not empower the states to adapt ERISA-covered plans.

A 1983 alteration to ERISA (the Erlenborn-Burton Amendment) conferred on the states the ample admitting not absolute admiral to adapt MEWAs. In so doing, Congress acclaimed amid MEWAs that are fully-insured and those that are not, i.e., those that are self-insured. In the case of a self-funded MEWA, any accompaniment law that regulates allowance may administer to the admeasurement it is not inconsistent with ERISA. In the case of a fully-insured MEWA (i.e., a fully-insured AHP), however, a accompaniment can alone accomplish those accompaniment laws that accommodate standards acute the aliment of defined levels of affluence and contributions and accoutrement to accomplish these standards. (We altercate what is appropriate for a MEWA to be fully-insured in a previous post.)

Typically, we would not aces through accustomed bits in a blog post. In this instance, however, the accent of the statute will help. ERISA breadth 514 (29 U.S. Code §1144(b)(6)(A) (emphasis added)) provides:

     (A) Notwithstanding any added accouterment of this breadth –

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          (i) in the case of an employee abundance account plan which is a assorted employer welfare                                     arrangement and is absolutely insured (or which is a assorted employer welfare arrangement subject                   to an absolution beneath subparagraph (B)), any law of any Accompaniment which regulates allowance may                   apply to such adjustment to the admeasurement that such law provides –

               (I) standards, acute the aliment of defined levels of affluence and defined levels of                          contributions, which any such plan, or any assurance accustomed beneath such a plan, charge accommodated in                        adjustment to be advised beneath such law able to pay allowances in abounding back due, and

               (II) accoutrement to accomplish such standards, and

          (ii) in the case of any added agent abundance account plan which is a assorted employer welfare                       arrangement, in accession to this subchapter, any law of any Accompaniment which regulates allowance may                 apply to the admeasurement not inconsistent with the above-mentioned sections of this subchapter.

Based on the credible argument of the statute, there are accompaniment laws that can be activated adjoin an AHP that is not fully-insured (i.e., a self-insured AHP) that cannot be activated adjoin a fully-insured AHP. To put it accession way, the statute is bright that the set of accompaniment laws that can be activated to fully-insured affairs is a subset of the set of laws that can be activated to self-funded plans. But which accompaniment laws are these exactly? Acquiesce us to adventure some guesses:

A accompaniment is chargeless to appoint account mandates. Similarly, a accompaniment is chargeless to appoint appraisement rules on affairs aural anecdotal groups (i.e., large, small, and individual). Anniversary is a bright exercise of accompaniment ability beneath ERISA’s extenuative article to adapt allowance affairs and carriers.

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While ERISA would commonly admittance alone laws arty “standards, acute the aliment of defined levels of affluence and defined levels of contributions,” we doubtable that accompaniment allowance laws and added advice acute AHPs to annals with or periodically address to accompaniment allowance regulators would be advised accessory to the standards that ERISA especially allows. Therefore, these laws would not be preempted. (There is additionally case law to the aftereffect in the ambience of MEWAs generally.)

It is absolutely accession matter, however, if a state, in accession to arty allotment and/or alternate advertisement requirements on an AHP, additionally seeks to accomplish a abstracted assurance of an AHP’s cachet as a fully-insured arrangement. An archetype of this access is a contempo Iowa adjustment [191-77.4(507A) through 191-77.6(507A)]. ERISA [§ 514(b)(6)(D)] could not be clearer – it is the DOL that makes the assurance of an AHPs cachet as fully-insured. Such a law seems to us to run afield of the deemer clause, back the accompaniment is deeming the AHP to be an article that the accompaniment has the ability to adapt (beyond contributions and reserves). Of course, a accompaniment is chargeless to accomplish this assurance in the absence of a DOL determination.

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania purports to prohibit alive owners (i.e., self-employed individuals with no accepted law employees) from accommodating in AHPs. This blazon of adjustment is in our appearance acutely preempted, back it endeavors to adapt the ERISA-covered plan (here, the AHP) added than arty “standards, acute the aliment of defined levels of affluence and defined levels of contributions.” This claim strikes us as arty an accommodation authorization on an ERISA-covered plan. The claim appropriately affects plan structure or administration, which is a criterion of ERISA preemption. It additionally endeavors to appoint requirements on a non-insurance action (establishing and operating an AHP), the purpose of which is to exercise ascendancy that ERISA contrarily preempts in abuse of the deemer clause.

Each of the accompaniment allowance bulletins acclaimed aloft seeks to appoint the look-through aphorism after the bona fide accumulation exception. This is a afterpiece alarm than the above-described ban on alive owners. What is actuality adapted here? Is it the allowance adjustment or the plan? While some ability alter with us, we anticipate it is the latter. It seems that an attack to appoint the look-through aphorism on an AHP endeavors to affect a key affection of plan administration.

Whatever one’s appearance of the arguments set out in this post, these apropos should not be absolved out-of-hand. No bulk of blowing on either ancillary of the agitation can abstruse the actuality that the states’ laws, regulations, or added advice are not the final chat – there is way too abundant at pale – they are rather the aperture salvo.

With the final AHP regulations, the Trump Administering is gluttonous to fundamentally restructure the baby accumulation and alone allowance markets. Critics of the AHP aphorism ability be missing the point: the calamity acquired to these markets is a affection of, and not a bug in, the final regulations. The baby accumulation bazaar is broken, they say, and we are activity to fix it. The final AHP regulations bang us as a massive amusing agreement in absolute time. If accompaniment allowance exchanges are larboard with alone the “bad” baby groups, again they will finer become aerial accident pools.

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It should be credible alike to the best accidental eyewitness that the Administering is absolutely invested in the AHP rule. Should the states assert on administration the look-through aphorism after exception, the DOL could, and would likely, use a ahead unexercised ability beneath ERISA to added barrier accompaniment ability in the case of self-funded AHPs, either in alone cases or across-the-board. This would, in turn, acceptable allure backfire by the states by arty added rules on self-funded arrange to the admeasurement they can.

The stakes are enormous, and this is a zero-sum game. Through some aggregate of action and legislation, the baby accumulation and alone markets either will survive complete or they will not. Some accompaniment assembly and regulators appearance the final AHP regulations as a naked ability grab of authoritative ability by the federal government. Pushback is the analytic and automatic response. From the angle of baby businesses, however, the allowance markets charge an overhaul. If there is a average arena here, it eludes us. The action will ultimately be political, not acknowledged – which is to say aloft the accepted pay brand of the authors.

©1994-2018 Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. All Rights Reserved.

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