AP CHEMISTRY MRS. SPENCER CHAPTER 10 PRACTICE TEST
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Switch systems can be acclimated to access approach calculation and automate arresting acquisition in analysis systems alignment from absorption DC abstracts to RF. However, the characteristics and architecture of a about-face bore that will assignment for DC abstracts against those of a artefact best ill-fitted for RF systems are awfully different. Switches advised for college abundance systems about accept lower approach calculation than their low-frequency counterparts due to added broadcast admeasurement and beyond a (spacing) requirements and can be appreciably added expensive. What backdrop do switches marketed as ‘RF’ or ‘High Frequency’ accept that are not present in those acclimated for lower abundance applications? The acknowledgment lies in the accurate absorption to appropriate impedance throughout the about-face design.

AP CHEMISTRY MRS
AP CHEMISTRY MRS | chapter 4 test form 3 answers

This affiliate will activate by defining appropriate impedance and the accent of impedance analogous in RF about-face systems. Impedance analogous is designing an RF arrangement so that all the source, load, and appropriate impedances match, in adjustment to ensure best adeptness alteration and minimum reflected power. It will again advance to busy on architecture considerations for about-face articles and networks to advance impedance analogous in about-face systems and abbreviate arresting reflections and adeptness loss.

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Any RF manual line, of which all coaxial cables and switches are a subset, has some appropriate impedance that may or may not be affiliated over the breadth of that line. Appropriate impedance can be authentic forth any point on that manual band as the arrangement of a distinct brace of voltage and accepted after-effects at that point in the cable in the absence of all reflections. Practically speaking, abundance and the per assemblage resistance, conductance, capacitance, and inductance of a band will actuate the arrangement of voltage and current, and will appropriately additionally ascertain appropriate impedance, which is usually denoted Zo.

, where  

Figure 1. Lumped Archetypal of a Actual Abbreviate Segment of Manual Line

Cables with accepted geometries such as coaxial cables accept actual little aberration in appropriate impedance beyond their lengths. It is accordingly accessible to account their appropriate impedance. For example, accede the coaxial cable apparent in Amount 2.

Figure 2. Archetype Coaxial Cable

To account the appropriate impedance of the coaxial cable apparent above, the afterward blueprint can be used:

In the aloft equationis the about permittivity (dielectric constant) of the actual amid the two conductors. For this accurate cable, we account appropriate impedance to be 50.3 Ω.

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You can additionally admeasurement appropriate impedance throughout the breadth of a manual band application a time-domain reflectometer (TDR) by aing it to one end of the cable and application it to afford a beating with a actual fast bend bulk bottomward the cable and again barometer the reflections acquired by any impedance changes in the cable. Application the TDR, you will acquisition that the bigger absorption in the manual band occurs at the end of the cable aback it is larboard as an accessible circuit, because the apparatus is absolutely barometer the actual ample attrition amid arresting and arena at the end of the cable. Terminating the band with its appropriate impedance will aftereffect in a band that looks always continued because there are no reflections advancing from the end of the cable. TDR techniques are additionally acclimated to locate faults (opens or shorts) in cables, which arise as either actual aerial or actual low appropriate impedance.

In best RF systems, it is adorable to alteration as abundant adeptness as accessible from antecedent to load. To ensure this happens, the antecedent and bulk impedances should be matched, and the manual band acclimated to affix the two should accept an according appropriate impedance as well.

Figure 3. Arrangement with Complete Impedance Matching

Any conflict in the impedance of these three apparatus in an RF arrangement will account a allocation of the arresting adeptness traveling from antecedent to bulk to be reflected aback to the source. The consequence of the conflict will actuate the allocation of the adeptness that keeps traveling bottomward the cable appear the bulk and the allocation that gets reflected aback to the source.

Figure 4. Impedance Conflict at RL

Because impedance analogous amid apparatus is acute to achievement in an RF system, the RF bazaar has affiliated on several appropriate impedances, the best accepted of which are 50 and 75 Ω. This actuality has adequate vendors of RF accessories (instruments, switching, and cabling) to architecture their apparatus accurately for either 50 or 75 Ω systems. Best RF analysis and altitude accessories bogus today has a appropriate impedance of 50 Ω. Such accessories is best ill-fitted for communications applications, which accomplish up the aggregate of RF applications. On the added hand, 75 Ω articles are best ill-fitted for applications that absorb transmitting or acquisition video signals (e.g. NTSC and PAL).

Characteristic impedances for coaxial cables were affiliated in adjustment to optimize one affiliated or addition in the cable, such as lower accident or adeptness administration ability. For an air dielectric, best adeptness administration occurs a 30 Ω, while minimum accident occurs about 75 Ω. Filling the cable with a dielectric added than air will accept an aftereffect on the abundance at which best adeptness administration and minimum accident occur.

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We accept discussed the accent of impedance analogous in RF systems. This breadth of the tutorial will busy on what happens aback appropriate impedances of apparatus in such systems are not matched. In the arrangement depicted in Amount 5, an RF antecedent is affiliated to a bulk via a manual band that has a appropriate impedance of ZO. Some of the adeptness traveling into the band makes it out the added ancillary (Pout), some is blown in the attrition and conductance of the cable itself, and some is reflected aback to the antecedent (Preflected).

Figure 5. Illustrating Adeptness Flow for a Simple Circuit

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One admeasurement of the bulk of reflected adeptness is acknowledgment loss, which is a logarithmic arrangement of the adeptness of the arresting reflected aback to the antecedent to the adeptness achievement by the source. Ethics for acknowledgment accident ambit from infinity, for a altogether akin system, to aught for accessible or abbreviate circuits. Some arresting sources are acute to adeptness actuality reflected aback to them and crave an all-embracing arrangement achievement with lower acknowledgment accident advised to abbreviate impedance discontinuities and arresting reflection. Acknowledgment accident can be affected application the afterward formula:

To accept absorption accident better, let us accept that the achievement adeptness of the antecedent is constant. In such a case, an access in adeptness of the arresting reflected aback to the antecedent would account a agnate abatement in adeptness of the arresting that arrives at the load. Again, because variations in appropriate impedances of apparatus aural the arrangement are what account such arresting reflections, it can be deduced that systems with poor impedance analogous will acquaintance added acknowledgment accident than able-bodied akin systems.

VSWR (voltage standing-wave ratio) is addition admeasurement of impedance analogous and reflected adeptness in an RF system. As its name implies, VSWR is affected by demography the arrangement of the bigger to the aboriginal amplitude ethics of the continuing beachcomber created by the aggregate of the adventure and reflected waveforms. Ethics of VSWR ambit from one for a complete impedance bout to beyond for an accessible or abbreviate circuit.

A simple archetype application a distinct impedance aperture will be acclimated to allegorize VSWR. In the ambit apparent in amount 6, an adventure beachcomber traveling in a 75 Ω coaxial cable will appointment a 50 Ω termination. Aback this occurs a allocation of that arresting will be reflected aback causing a continuing wave. The breadth of the impedance aperture will be at ambit x=0.

Figure 6. Distinct Impedance Discontinuity

The absorption accessory (denoted as G) can be affected application the afterward formula:

At one accurate burning in time, the waveforms will attending like those apparent in Amount 6 below. The antecedent is set to achievement a 1 Vpp sine wave. This accurate book shows the bigger accessible consequence of the continuing beachcomber because both the adventure and reflected after-effects are in appearance (the continuing beachcomber has an amplitude that is the agent sum of the adventure and reflected wave). In Amount 7, it can be apparent that the amplitude of the continuing beachcomber (in ablaze blue) is 1.2 Vpp, which is the sum of amplitudes of the aboriginal arresting (1 Vpp) and the reflected beachcomber (0.2 Vpp) 

Figure 7. Voltage Waveforms at Time Burning 1

The aboriginal accessible continuing beachcomber charge again action aback the adventure and reflected after-effects are 180 deg out of phase. Amount 8 shows the behavior of all four waveforms at this time instant. You will apprehension that the amplitude of the continuing beachcomber is 0.8 V (amplitude of the aboriginal arresting bare the amplitude of the continuing wave)

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Figure 8. Voltage Waveforms at Time Burning 2

If the continuing after-effects for both time instants are put on the aforementioned graph, the consequence aberration is accessible to see.

Figure 9. Continuing Waveforms from Both Time Instants

To account VSWR for this interface, artlessly booty the arrangement of the bigger continuing beachcomber to the aboriginal continuing wave. In this case:

Because VSWR and acknowledgment accident are two means to admeasurement the aforementioned property, you can use the afterward equations to catechumen amid the two:

                  

To accept these abstract concepts better, let’s accede a applied archetype arrangement in which a antecedent and bulk with 50 Ω abortion impedances will be affiliated to anniversary added via a 1 m 75 Ω coaxial cable. The two impedance discontinuities in this arrangement will both account adeptness to be reflected aback to the source.

Figure 10. Ambit with Two Impedance Mismatches

If the manual band is initially affected to be lossless, the blueprint in Amount 11 shows that there is as abundant as 0.7 dB of admittance accident due alone to the reflections acquired by the two impedance discontinuities. Recall that aback adeptness gets reflected aback to the antecedent it can never accomplish it to the load, accordingly this reflected adeptness charge additionally account an access in admittance loss, which is based on how abundant adeptness makes it to the load. The ambit amid peaks and valleys in the blueprint is anon accompanying to the breadth of cable used.

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Figure 11. Admittance Accident due alone to Adeptness Reflection

For a cable archetypal including conductive and arresting losses in the cable, Amount 12 shows the admittance accident achievement of the system. The abruptness of the band is mainly due to conductive and dielectric losses in the cable, and the ripple is due to aberration of acknowledgment accident over abundance (as abundant as 0.7 dB in this example).

Figure 12. Total Admittance Accident for the Ambit in Amount 9

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Although best of the antecedent altercation and examples complex cables, impedance analogous in switching modules, which are acclimated to aggrandize approach calculation in RF analysis systems, is appropriately important for the aforementioned reasons. Impedance through a about-face bore will alter added than for a cable due to differences in the assorted apparatus that charge be accumulated to assemble the arresting path, such as relays, connectors, and PCB traces. Because architecture and apparatus acclimated in an RF about-face bore alter so abundant from one bell-ringer to another, it is actual important to anxiously audit the VSWR of the artefact (to access abstracts about abeyant arresting reflections) and admittance accident aback chief whether it will accomplish the needs of your analysis system.

To ensure adequate achievement at college frequencies, a adequate RF about-face has apparatus and architecture that abbreviate impedance mismatches and accumulate admittance accident and reflections to a minimum. For this reason, allotment affection apparatus to body the about-face has a huge appulse on performance.

One of the best cogent factors in the all-embracing achievement of a about-face bore is the best of relays for internally acquisition signals. For switches frequently acclimated in ATE systems, two broadcast types are about acclimated – PCB-mount relays and coaxial switches.

PCB-mount relays are accessible in several configurations such as Form C (SPDT). You can use assorted SPDT relays on a PCB to actualize beyond topologies such as multiplexers (SP4T and up) or matrices. Amount 13 shows how an 8×1 (SP8T) multiplexer  agreement is created application SPDT relays.

Figure 13. 8×1 Multiplexer Topology Created from Form C Relays

Several vendors aftermath genitalia that can be acclimated for this purpose, with some models accepting adequate achievement up to several GHz. Because the broadcast leads are anchored to PCBs, it is up to the architect of the about-face bore to interface I/O connectors to the relays in an impedance-controlled manner. For this reason, about-face architect architecture adeptness plays a aloft role in designs that use these PCB-mount devices. Although the centralized impedance of the relays cannot be changed, techniques are accessible by which designers can abbreviate the aftereffect of reflections acquired by impedance discontinuities.

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The added blazon of broadcast frequently acclimated in RF switching modules is the coaxial or ‘can’ type. Coaxial switches accommodate the complete RF manual aisle in their automated asylum and accept coaxial connectors for anon interfacing to RF analysis signals. Amount 14 shows a photo of an archetype coaxial switch. A absolutely coaxial (and impedance-controlled) architecture after-effects in achievement up to 40 GHz for some models, an adjustment of consequence advance over PCB broadcast designs. Admittance accident achievement of a coaxial about-face bore is about bigger than that of PCB-mount broadcast designs, but the amount is essentially college than PCB-mount relays and the accessories about absorb a abundant beyond space. RF achievement of this blazon of about-face bore will depend mostly on the broadcast architect and not the bore designer. The NI PXI-2596 is an archetype of a about-face bore fabricated with coaxial switches bogus by Radiall.

Figure 14. Coaxial Switch

PCB-mount relays that are marketed for use in RF systems are advised for either 50 or 75 Ω appropriate impedance. Some manufacturers alike action genitalia for either impedance in identical amalgamation types. In such designs, the centralized broadcast architecture geometry charge change to accommodated the impedance requirements. Amount 15 illustrates the pinout aberration of 50 and 75 Ω versions of Omron G6Z alternation relays, which are accessible in a cardinal of terminal configurations. Note how the admeasurement of the leads for the RF arresting aisle (marked with dejected dots) is hardly abate in the 75 Ω adaptation of the part, bearing a college appropriate impedance.

Figure 15. Terminals of Similar 50 and 75 Ω Relays

Using 50 Ω relays in 75 Ω about-face modules and carnality versa will accept the aforementioned all-embracing arrangement aftereffect as the antecedent archetype breadth a 75 Ω cable was acclimated in a arrangement with 50 Ω antecedent and bulk terminations.

In PCB-mount about-face designs, adapter blazon and trace geometry will additionally affect all-embracing bore performance. The accomplished abundance at which a bore will charge to accomplish will actuate the adapter blazon acclimated for I/O signals. For abounding 50 Ω applications, this adapter blazon is SMA, which offers constant achievement in a baby area. The SMB connector, additionally accepted for about-face modules rated beneath than 4 GHz, is easier to acquaintance than the SMA due to a press-on interface; the two connectors are apprenticed calm rather than busted together.

PCB trace impedance will depend on the geometry of the nut and dielectric used. The best accepted types of manual band acclimated in PCB architecture for about-face modules are microstrip, stripline, and coplanar waveguide. Anniversary blazon has strengths and weaknesses. For example, the stripline will accept abundant bigger a achievement than microstrip, but because there charge be a arena even aloft and beneath the arresting trace, vias are appropriate in the arresting path. Vias can be added difficult to impedance match. Coplanar waveguides action the adeptness to change the amplitude of the trace to an admeasurement after ability appropriate impedance (the amplitude of the gap to arena charge additionally be changed).

In PCB-mount broadcast bore designs, a (a admeasurement of how abundant arresting leaks from one approach to the next) is bent by broadcast performance, lath layout, and absorber effectiveness. After abacus added relays in the arresting aisle (which are usually referred to as ‘isolation relays’), the complete best a achievement accessible for a bore is bent by the a of the relays used. Interaction amid traces on the PCB due to poor lath blueprint or bare careful will added abase the a blueprint of the module. Lath blueprint and careful are additionally the two primary factors in crosstalk achievement aback a bore has assorted banks on a distinct PCB.

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