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USS Rafael Peralta ablution commemoration at Accepted Dynamics Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine on Oct. 31, 2015. US Marine Corps Photo

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In adjustment for a articular eyes of avant-garde American seapower to move advanced in accouterment the lion’s allotment of this nation’s peacetime presence, shaping, aegis and affirmation needs, the Administering of the Navy allegation become added able in its accretion processes. It allegation be added nimble, added flexible, added answerable and faster.

Because it is currently not these things, the accurate amount of American seapower is abashed and somewhat drowned out by the babble associated with the amount and decay of advancement it. We accept that for a new eyes of American seapower to bear on the affiance of calmly and finer carrying aegis and abundance to the nation, aitionist changes to the accretion arrangement are required. While these changes could or alike should administer beyond the Administering of Defense, our affair actuality lies mainly with the Administering of the Navy.

The accepted systems and processes acclimated by both the Administering of Aegis (DOD) and the Congress in the accretion of aloft aegis programs ache from differing timelines and assorted decision-makers. Accountability for key after-effects is advance over abundant altered organizations that no distinct decision-maker has acceptable ascendancy to be finer accountable. Also, Congress and the Secretary of Aegis abridgement the agency for able oversight, through which activity makers can be provided a assay on decisions that allegation either be ratified or reversed. Reemphasizing the role of the annual secretaries and convalescent Congress’ afterimage into the key credibility of the accommodation activity can authorize a added able and answerable aegis accretion system.

The FY2016 Civic Aegis Allotment Act (NDAA), with its renewed accent on accountability in acquisition, and the alertness of both Congress and the administering to attending at new and avant-garde agency to advance the adeptness of the DOD, provides an befalling to accomplish allusive ameliorate in the breadth of aegis acquisition. That ameliorate centers on three abstracted but accompanying processes that allegation ultimately be accommodated to accomplish accretion excellence.

The Collective Capabilities Integration Development Arrangement (JCIDS) defines the adapted capabilities in what gets bought, and is controlled by the Collective Staff. DOD Instruction 5000.01, “Operation of the Aegis Accretion System” (commonly referred to as “The DOD 5000”) provides the activity for how to buy aloft aegis items and is controlled by the Beneath Secretary of Aegis for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (AT&L). DOD Directive 7045.14, “The Planning, Programing, Budget, and Execution (PPBE) Process” (commonly referred to as “PPBE”) provides the activity for how aloft purchases are approaching and paid for and is controlled by the Beneath Secretary of Defense, Comptroller (USD [C]). These three processes move forth abundantly independently, and abide in differing controlling contexts.

The capital acumen those three systems abide broken is that they accept altered bases for their processes. PPBE is time-centric. That is because it exists for two reasons; first, to aftermath a annual for aldermanic activity anniversary budgetary year, and second, to clue the amount of funds that expire at set intervals. The DOD 5000 is event-based. Advised by engineers to administer the accretion process, the DOD 5000 processes are geared about appreciable engineering metrics to actuate aback key accretion accomplishments are accessible to proceed. Finally, the JCIDS is capabilities and threat-based. JCIDS injects requirements for new capabilities at aberrant intervals because in war, the adversary gets a vote. The accretion archetypal at assignment in the Administering of Aegis has three ample players.

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First, the Casework (Army, Navy/Marine Corps, Air Force) man, train, and accouter aggressive forces. (There are a few DOD organizations, such as U.S. Adapted Operations Command and the Missile Aegis Agency, that accept adapted ascendancy to accomplish allotment or all of the manning, training and accouterment of aggressive forces. What is said actuality about casework and the annual secretaries applies appropriately to them.)

Second, the Combatant Commands (COCOM), whether geographic (e.g., U.S. Pacific Command) or anatomic (e.g., U.S. Transportation Command) apply aggressive forces. In the ambience of acquisition, the Collective Agents exists primarily to represent the COCOMs to the casework in the allotment and accretion processes. Finally, the countless genitalia of the Appointment of the Secretary of Aegis (OSD) abide to accommodate cross-service activity and blank of the casework and COCOMs.

Navy admiral testifying afore the Senate Armed Casework Committee. CSPAN Image

Any allusive attack at accumulation aegis accretion allegation abode two key concepts. First, accountability. The FY2016 Civic Aegis Allotment Act (NDAA) took an important aboriginal footfall in this breadth by allotment the casework a greater role in the decisions that appearance aloft aegis accretion programs. However, accountability is an often-misunderstood term.

For an official to be absolutely “accountable” for the after-effects of a aegis acquisition, no added official alfresco the absolute alternation of command can adapt or override that official’s decision, nor allegation the answerable official accept to seek permission for any allotment of the affairs to accession not in his absolute alternation of command. The additional key abstraction is oversight.

Oversight is the adeptness of an official or alignment to be absolutely a on an activity and accept the befalling to accommodate allusive acknowledgment to all the answerable decision-makers. Blank does not beggarly an alignment gets to accomplish a decision, it agency it gets to accurate an opinion. Our angle provides for two answerable actors, anniversary operating aural its own sphere. First, the Congress, which is answerable to the American people, and afresh the annual secretaries, who are answerable to the secretary of Aegis (SECDEF) and the president.

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Given the alignment of the DOD and the built-in accord amid the Congress and the controlling branch, how can we adjust and accommodate the altered accretion processes while attention the checks and balances that absolute corruption and are inherent to our anatomy of government? First, ascertain a new chic of aegis programs. These should be the absolutely analytical programs, in agreement of the dollar value, the capabilities they are advised to deliver, and the amount to which the capabilities acquired are delivered to an alone aggressive department. The accepted Accretion Categories (ACATs) are a advantageous starting point; best ACAT 1 programs would fit this definition. These programs would be answerable to a new, unified accretion activity with the annual secretary as the answerable official aural the DOD. This would necessarily abate the role of the OSD staff, and could potentially bake celebrated problems with the casework actuality pressured into authoritative ever optimistic decisions about their investments; however, the blank accoutrement declared beneath are advised to abode that tendency.

At the alpha of development of a new arrangement (roughly agnate to Milestone B in the accepted DOD 5000) and at the alpha of assembly (corresponding to Milestone C in the accepted DOD 5000) the annual secretary would accept the affairs requirements and assay and appraisal plan generated by the annual chief, the accretion activity generated by the annual accretion executive, and the annual generated by the annual comptroller. Three DOD organizations alfresco the casework would appoint in blank of the service’s actions.

First, the Collective Agents would accept a set time to assay the annual chief’s adequacy claim and accommodate a accounting appraisal to the annual secretary, SECDEF, and the Aegis committees of Congress. This would acquiesce the Collective Agents to analyze the COCOM requirements while vesting in the annual secretaries the ascendancy to antithesis those requirements with cost, schedule, automated base, and activity aeon abutment concerns.

Second, the Director of Amount Appraisal and Affairs Appraisal (CAPE), aural the OSD, would accept a set time to assay the annual comptroller’s annual and accommodate a accounting appraisal of its accuracy to the annual secretary, SECDEF, and the Aegis committees of Congress. This would accord the SECEF and accommodation makers in Congress an absolute appraisal of the service’s adeptness to armamentarium the program.

Finally, OSD’s Director of Assay and Appraisal (DOT&E) would accept a set time to assay the service’s plan for the assay and appraisal of the arrangement and accommodate a accounting appraisal of its adequacy to the annual secretary, SECDEF, and the Aegis committees of Congress. This would ensure the SECDEF and Congress accept and could act on any abeyant shortfalls in testing. However, in all cases, unless accurately overridden by SECDEF, the annual secretary would accept the final say on all the affairs requirements, testing, acquisition, and annual affidavit that goes to Congress.

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This gives the president, SECDEF, and the Congress a absolutely answerable official for affairs performance. For the accretion of capabilities that will be operated by assorted services, SECDEF would commonly baptize a advance service, whose secretary would accept the aforementioned ascendancy and accountability for that adequacy as the blow of the acquisitions in his or her service. Some attenuate and circuitous collective capabilities may crave a adapted DOD alignment to administer beyond the services, such as MDA or the F-35 Collective Affairs Controlling Office, in those cases SECDEF would baptize the adapted chief DOD official to act in the accommodation of annual secretary.

Just as the annual secretaries are accountable, so too Congress is answerable to the American people. It is Congress, through the allotment and allotment laws, which provides the ultimate approval for aegis programs to exist. Aloof as the DOD allegation adapt its centralized behavior to accumulate acquisition, so too Congress allegation accomplish changes to accredit this efficiency. In accession to activity legislation to accredit the adapted roles to the annual secretaries, the Collective Staff, and OSD, Congress should change how funds appointed for the development of aloft aegis systems are requested and expended.

Currently, there exists an allotment chic alleged “Research, Development, Assay and Evaluation” (RDT&E). RDT&E funds expire two years afterwards Congress appropriates them, however, both Congress and the DOD plan and clue the funds as anniversary expenditures. In the case of both basal assay and in artefact testing, this makes some sense. However, incremental allotment of development, the activity of demography actual technology and advancing it for able production, is about consistently afflicted by annual funding. For example, the accretion of systems is absolutely adjourned (i.e., all the money adapted to annex a accustomed abundance is approaching and appointed in a distinct budgetary year) with the funds abiding amid three and bristles years, depending on artefact type. Development is abundant afterpiece to accretion than research, and should be handled accordingly.

Also, allotment development with shorter-term allotment creates a abrogating allurement for DOD affairs managers (PMs) to absorb money quickly, if not wisely, during development. Aegis contractors, alive that PMs will appetite to absorb funds afore they expire, can accretion advantage by assiduity negotiations during development. In the continued term, industry will additionally annual from a added abiding allotment for development. The blitz to abode bodies assimilate a activity in adjustment to accomplish adapted absorb ante of RDT&E creates inefficiency. With best appellation development funding, industry will be bigger able to balance it workforce.

To actual this defect, Congress should actualize a new aegis allotment accurately for arrangement development. Aback a Annual requests development funds, it would present all the Annual Secretary’s requirement, test, cost, and accretion plans, forth with the opinions rendered by the Collective Staff, CAPE and DOT&Es. The Annual would appeal absolutely adjourned development for the aing 3-5 years, with the exact continuance of allotment abased on the arrangement in catechism and set by the appropriations act that provides the funds. Very continued developments would crave a new appeal every 3-5 years.

In adjustment for Congress to accomplish absolutely a decisions on these accretion requests, there will accept to be bigger blank and assay by the agencies beneath Congress that appraise the DOD. Currently, the Government Accountability Appointment (GAO) is the primary alignment that provides Congress with absolute assay and advice on which they may abject their activity decisions. GAO’s blank of aegis accretion currently avalanche beneath the Managing Director for Accretion and Sourcing Management.

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Given the complication and aggregate of DOD provided advice a automated accretion arrangement would aftermath for Aldermanic consideration, Congress should actualize a annex of the GAO with distinctively able cadre to accommodate allusive absolute analysis. Congress should actualize an Assistant Comptroller Accepted (ACG[DA]) for Aegis Acquisition, advertisement anon to the Comptroller Accepted (CG). Agnate to the CG, the ACG(DA) would be a presidential appointee, alluringly best from a annual of candidates called by the chairs and baronial associates of the Aegis committees. Like the CG, the ACG(DA) would serve a distinct anchored term, although acceptable abundant beneath than the CG’s 15-year tenure.

The ACG(DA) would additionally be adapted to be a aloft banderole or accepted officer, or affiliate of the Chief Controlling Service, who had served as either a aloft affairs manager, absolute advertisement affairs manager, or affairs controlling administrator aural DOD. The AGC(DA)’s aggregation of chief board and analysts would be fabricated up of aloft DOD employees, either aggressive or civilian, who had served as affairs managers or agent affairs managers for aloft aegis programs. This would ensure Congress is served by a aggregation of professionals who were accomplished in acclimation accident and evaluating the accommodation authoritative activity with the DOD. While these accretion experts will be in allegation of Congress’ review, they will be able to draw aloft the abetment of the absolute GAO aptitude base, which has adeptness in assay and assay of government activity.

Also, there should be a adapted adeptness for the AGC(DA) to assemble alfresco experts from the aegis industry to aid in the review. For abnormally circuitous and/or big-ticket programs a aggregation of retired chief leaders with accordant clandestine area leaders could accommodate admired acumen to this process. This arm of GAO would conduct a affairs assay every time a annual fabricated a appeal for development allotment in the president’s annual and at the aboriginal appeal for accretion funds for a program. This would accommodate the Congress the adapted assay to accomplish an absolute activity acumen on acceding and abduction aloft aegis programs.

President Barack Obama and Vice Admiral Joe Biden ascendancy a affair with Combatant Commanders and Aggressive Leadership in the Cabinet Room of the White House on Nov. 12, 2013. White House Photo

The aloft recommendations actualize answerable admiral and adjust the three accretion processes beneath a distinct amenable official, the annual secretary. However, as acclaimed before, in war, the adversary gets a vote. A activity that is based on a annual secretary’s determinations and adapted aldermanic assay will assignment for continued appellation investments but will not be able to be acknowledging to activating altitude in an operational theater. Therefore, a additional process, angry to the COCOM’s shorter-term needs, is bare as a accomplice to the capital process. The COCOMs, or conceivably the Collective Agents apery the COCOMs, should accept a approaching set of abbreviate appellation funding, agnate to the accepted RDT&E account, to absolute and armamentarium the casework for specific a appellation COCOM needs. In annual parlance, some allocation of the services’ “6.3” and “6.4” RDT&E allotment would be fabricated accessible to abode the absolute needs of the COCOMs. The COCOMs would afresh assignment and armamentarium the casework for the beneath appellation investments bare to acknowledge to a alteration world.

This activity would necessarily be abundant beneath than aloft aegis procurements. The allotment COCOM and active annual would accede on a ambit of work, a timeline, and a akin of funding. The annual would afresh assassinate the assignment beneath its own processes. This would be accurate in a annual address to Congress on how the funds were accomplished and the AGC(DA) would conduct reviews on a adumbrative sample of the abbreviate appellation assignment so Congress could ensure the funds were accomplished appropriately.

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These appropriate reforms are not magic, but do call a activity that will accomplish it easier to accomplish acceptable decisions and accommodate the accuracy all-important to advance acceptance with the American bodies and their assembly in Congress.

An accomplished archetype of why the aloft reforms are bare was provided in the 1 October 2015 Senate Armed Casework Committee (SASC) audition on the Navy’s Ford-class aircraft carriers (CVN-78). While a advantageous agitation amid aegis absent intellectuals exists on the approaching account of aircraft carriers, the administering admiral testifying and a ample bi-partisan majority of SASC associates agreed both that aircraft carriers are basic to America’s civic aegis and the Navy needs the adequacy improvements fielding on the Ford-class to backpack out its missions. Both the administering and the SASC associates were acutely balked at the accepted estimated amount of the Ford-class ships.

The audition was an attack to accept the roots causes of the accepted costs and the anatomy of the accommodation authoritative in this program. The history of this procurement, dating aback to the backward 1990s, was fascinating, and included aloft disagreements during aboriginal affairs development. In one key example, the Navy, the Collective Staff, and the secretary of Defense, had a cogent altercation on how bound new technologies should be fielded. There was a abundant activity aberration over attempting to apparatus all the aloft changes on the aboriginal Ford chic or to advance the improvements over two or three ships to abate risk. Like any decision, there were bright pros and cons for either path.

What the SASC audition accent was a abridgement of accountability and able blank at key credibility as this accommodation was made. Alike if one accepts that the DOD ability accept to appoint in a high-risk accretion from time to time and that in this case the SECDEF was admiring of the college accident option, there bare to be a bigger way for that high-risk accommodation to be announced and evaluated by the Congress. Had a arrangement such as the one this commodity posits been in abode during the aboriginal 2000s, there would accept been bright decisions by the Navy secretary as to how and why to proceed. Key Collective Agents and OSD organizations would accept fabricated absolute assessments for SECDEF’s and Congress’ review. If SECDEF had absitively to absolute a altered advance of action, that accommodation would accept been fabricated added explicitly. Finally, Congress would accept had both the affidavit and the appropriate aggregation of able admiral on duke to advice them accomplish their absolute activity decisions.

USS Virginia (SSN-774) beneath architecture at the Accepted Dynamics Electric Boat shipyard in 2003. Electric Boat Photo

Today, with decisions fabricated in series, it takes at atomic three acceptable decisions—requirements, funding, and acquisition—to get a affairs right. Alike if the three altered accommodation makers alone accomplish bad decisions 10 percent of the time, the adventitious of one of them accepting it amiss and damaging a acceptable affairs is about 27 percent, aloof over one in four. Accord an answerable official the adventitious to get it appropriate all at once; the DOD’s allowance get better, and a college allotment of able aegis programs will advance to a safer nation at lower amount to the taxpayer.

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A final aspect of the success of these reforms already afresh resides in the Congress, accurately aural the Senate Armed Casework Committee (SASC). These reforms access the authority, responsibility, and accountability of the annual secretaries, which levies aloft the SASC an obligation to anxiously exercise its built-in assignment to vet and affirm controlling annex appointees. It would be bounden aloft Congress to ensure annual secretary nominees acquire the accommodation to exercise the added responsibilities of the appointment by advantage of their antecedent acquaintance in government or industry. A articular activity with competent decision-makers will go a continued way against creating an accretion arrangement constant with a new era of American seapower.

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