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The Tennessee Cloister of Appeals has disqualified 2-1 that the burghal of Chattanooga waited too connected to book clothing to try to accretion advantage for the millions of dollars it has had to absorb to absolute problems at the 21st Century Waterfront.

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Judge John McClarty wrote the majority appraisal and he was aing by Judge Charles Susano. Judge Herschel Franks had a agnostic opinion.

Circuit Cloister Judge Jackie Bolton in March 2010 said that the burghal of Chattanooga knew about problems at the 21st Century Beach as aboriginal as May 2005, but waited about four years to book suit.

She said all parties in the accusation accede that the applicative statute of limitations is three years on architecture defects.

Judge Bolton absolved the accusation adjoin the RiverCity Company, Continental Construction, Hargreaves and Associates and others complex in the $120 actor project.

The burghal has already spent $1.5 actor to fix above problems at The Access allocation of the beach attraction. It is adverse millions added in aliment to the “hard edge” allocation alternating the beach at Ross’s Landing Park.

Defendant attorneys board Marc H. Harwell and Benjamin T. Reese, Hoyt Samples for NABCO Electric Company, Bill Colvin for Masonry Specialist Corp. and Al Henry for the River Burghal Company.

Here is the majority opinion:

IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF TENNESSEE AT KNOXVILLE

January 31, 2012 Session

CITY OF CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE, ET AL. v. HARGREAVES ASSOCIATES, INC., ET AL.

Appeal from the Circuit Cloister for Hamilton County No. 09C403 Jacqueline S. Bolton, Judge

No. E2011-01197-COA-R3-CV-FILED-JUNE 21, 2012

The plaintiffs in this matter, the burghal and a redevelopment group, filed this activity adjoin the actor entities complex in the architecture and architecture of a abounding borough activity on the city’s waterfront. Additionally called as a actor was the development administrator for the project. The balloon cloister accustomed arbitrary acumen to the defendants on the base that the plaintiffs’ accusation was barred by the applicative statute of limitations begin in Tennessee Code Annotated breadth 28-3-105. The plaintiffs appeal. We affirm.

Tenn. R. App. P. 3 Address as of Right; Acumen of the Circuit Court Affirmed; Case Remanded

J OHN W. M CC LARTY, J., delivered the appraisal of the Court, in which C HARLES D. S USANO, J R., J., aing and H ERSCHEL P. F RANKS, P.J., dissented, filing a agnostic opinion.

Michael A. McMahan, Valerie L. Malueg,, Sam D. Elliott, Wade K. Cannon, and David G. McDowell, Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the appellants, Burghal of Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Chattanooga Burghal Redevelopment Corporation.

Marc H. Harwell and Benjamin T. Reese, Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the appellees, Hargreaves Associates, Inc., Continental Architecture Co., The River Burghal Co., NABCO Electric Co., Inc., Masonry Specialist Corp., Valley Crest Mural Development, Inc., Hobbs Architectural Fountains, and Moffatt & Nichol, Inc.1

Pfists Enterprises, Inc. did not move for arbitrary acumen and is not a affair to this appeal.

OPINION

I. BACKGROUND

This accusation arises out of the Chattanooga 21st Century Beach Plan (“the Project”), a architecture activity alternating the Tennessee River in the burghal area. The Activity was complete in “Packages.” “Package 2” included the architecture of “The Passage.”2 This activity accurately apropos declared errors and omissions in the design and architecture of Package 2.

The Burghal of Chattanooga (“the City”) and Chattanooga Burghal Redevelopment Association (“CDRC”), a Tennessee non-profit association and activity of the City (collectively “Chattanooga”), entered into a arrangement for the accouterment of architectural casework for the Activity with Hargreaves Associates, Inc. (“Hargreaves”), a consulting firm comprised of mural architects and planners, on December 2, 2002. CDRC was to administrate the Activity on account of the Burghal and was appointed the “owner” of several accoutrements of acreage in the Activity area. Hargreaves was complex in the architecture and development of the adept plan for the about 129 acreage of the Project. Hargreaves additionally was amenable for reviewing completed surveys and reports, for admonition the development administrator of any acclaimed discrepancies, and for accouterment “advice on the ambit of assignment for absolute acreage work.”

On July 1, 2003, CDRC entered into a Development Administration Acceding (“the Agreement”) with the River Burghal Company (“RiverCity”), a Tennessee non-profit corporation created in 1986 to apparatus the Tennessee River Park Adept Plan.3 RiverCity’s lath of admiral is fabricated up of the Mayors of the Burghal and Hamilton County, the Chairs of the City Council and the Hamilton County Commission, and added association leaders. In the Agreement, CDRC, listed as the “owner” in the arrangement documents, retained RiverCity as the development administrator to “organize, alike and board admonition with account to design, architecture and development of the Project.”

According to Hargreaves, RiverCity was adapted by arrangement to acquaint CDRC of all

A absorption basin and stairway amid amid the Aquarium and Market Street forms a passage from Aboriginal Street bottomward to the Beach breadth at Ross’s Landing.

RiverCity addendum that its accountant purpose is to abetment the Burghal and Hamilton County with economic development initiatives for burghal Chattanooga.

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relevant issues associated with the Project.4 All contractors, including Hargreaves, were to use RiverCity – CDRC’s Appointed Adumbrative – as a aqueduct to broadcast admonition to Chattanooga apropos the Project.

On or about November 4, 2003, the assets for the Package 2 construction, which included The Passage, were completed and accustomed by Hargreaves. Architecture began anon thereafter. Continental Architecture Company, Inc. (“Continental”) acted as the primary architecture contractor. The added defendants/third-party defendants, Moffatt & Nichol, Inc. (“M&N”), Masonry Specialist Association (“MSC”), NABCO Electric Co. (“NABCO”), and Valley Crest Mural Development, Inc. (“Valley Crest”), performed assorted architecture or construction-related activities on the Project.

Throughout 2004 and 2005, Hargreaves claims that on abounding occasions, it informed RiverCity of assorted architecture problems and issues. Hargreaves notified RiverCity of architecture problems via belletrist it would periodically affair to individuals alive on the Project. According to Hargreaves, specific problems of which RiverCity was fabricated aware by Hargreaves board the following:

On October 28, 2004, Hargreaves created acreage address No. 156 apropos observations fabricated on October 27, 2004. Joonyon Kim and Gavin McMillan of Hargreaves, Mike Winters of Moffatt & Nichol and Jeff Shelden of Moffatt & Nichol were on-site and empiric that bank #1 “is moving.” They also “noticed the esplanade is clearing on both abandon of new parkway arch and acquired aerial cracks on bank #1 adverse the river.” The admonition or activity that was adapted was for “Arcadis to appointment the armpit and appraise the accident on the bank #1 and provide adjustment strategy.”

On January 7, 2005, Hargreaves issued a announcement apropos action items needed, and advertence is fabricated to the Access bank #1 settling. With account to the arctic wall, advertence is fabricated to the ascendancy joints actuality in the amiss places. According to Arcadis the cracks in the arctic bank “should not be of concern, but added ascertainment is required. Epoxy to be injected in cracks.”

In its acknowledgment to Chattanooga’s complaint, RiverCity acclaimed that for best of the architecture period, above Burghal Mayor – and accustomed United States Senator – Bob Corker was CDRC’s appointed acquaintance on all architecture coordination. RiverCity accompanying that it additionally formed carefully with City’s Chief Financial Officer and the Administration of Accessible Works.

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The bite account additionally acclaimed that the esplanade was clearing on both abandon of the new arch and such was the albatross of both Arcadis and Stein. The adjustment was about 3/4”. Hargreaves additionally acclaimed that the pavers bare to be anchored with Package 2. Hargreaves recommended that Dan Kral, the Project adumbrative for River City, get article in autograph regarding such a fix.

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On January 14 and January 28, 2005, Hargreaves issued a account amend already afresh cogent affair about the same problems as afore-referenced.

In circadian acreage address #322 anachronous January 25, 2005, Hargreaves issued a announcement to Kenny Statham of Continental apropos a affair about baptize actuality trapped central the Access panels should flood baptize or alike run-off baptize from the beam panels drift abaft the decrepit bank cladding. In response, Dan Kral explained that the baptize would acceptable drift “to the corners breadth there is a aperture about 1/8” aboveboard [which would] acquiesce the baptize to cesspool through the abutment and then bottomward the breadth to the end (of anniversary 8′ sheet) to cesspool out of the 1/4″ gap.” On January 26, 2005, Hargreaves responded to Dan Kral’s appraisal of the baptize aggression abaft the panels of the Access concern. Hargreaves accurately capital to know whether bits from a flood would accumulate the panels from free- draining.

According to “new RFI No. 62” anachronous February 1, 2005, apropos the Access cladding, Dan Kral was beatific a announcement by Kenny Statham of Continental advertence that the absolute concrete bank on the east ancillary of the Access is out of erect by about 3″ and out of alignment in the north/south administration by about 6″. He was brash that the masonry cladding will allegation to be adapted in adjustment to awning this wall. The proposed band-aid was to accomplish the “top cap 22″ wide instead of 18″ advanced in adjustment to awning the bank irregularities,” and he declared that there ability be a time change associated with the proposed fix and conceivably a amount change.

On February 25, 2005, Hargreaves issued a account amend once

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again analogue the problems with Package 1 and acquainted in red blazon that the Access bank #1 was moving. The esplanade was clearing on both abandon of the new arch – alone 1/4″. Pavers bare to be fixed. Hargreaves additionally acclaimed in red a concern about account asylum #1 BFP aperture with albatross attributed to Continental or River City; affair about Access 150 HP pump erfly valve (submittal #115) with responsibility attributed to River Burghal or Dan Euser; a affair about Passage bank #2 irregularities with albatross actuality attributed to River City; a affair about a acreage analysis acknowledgment with albatross to Valley Crest or Continental; a allegation to alike account vaults with albatross actuality attributed to River City; and a affair about Access bank arising aperture to the river with albatross actuality attributed to River City.

On March 1, 2005, Hargreaves able a announcement apropos the problems apropos the architecture of Access bank #1. Hargreaves declared the botheration as follows:

We authentic to abounding abaft the access cladding with acrylic adapted mortar. The abstraction was to build it like a bean bank – solid with no air gap so we are acceptable for calamity and bits appulse and ascent Cherokee art, etc. The subcontractor has congenital it so far like a architecture appearance with air gap that will buck wind endless but not much else. They accept adapted bushing gap with Styrofoam bedding and accept weep-holes but accustomed the acute aberration in the gap because of the poor accurate bank tolerances a accurate fit is not possible.

Other options board injecting urea- formaldehyde cream into gap, afar abounding with vermiculite, adhesive with perlite for lightweight, etc.

Why can’t we aloof abounding it with adhesive every 4 or so courses? How do you actuate if the amount from the adhesive is abundant to advance the cladding out

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before it dries?

(viii) Afterward this specific admonishing from Hargreaves, a cardinal of memos were exchanged amid Moffatt and Nichol, Continental, Hargreaves, and River Burghal apropos a possible band-aid to the problem. River Burghal was told and empiric that the walls had not been appropriately complete and was enlisting the ascribe of Hargreaves and others in an accomplishment to avoid annihilation of the walls and reconstruction.

On March 11, 2005, Hargreaves issued a account amend stating that Access bank #2 was affective and attributed albatross to Arcadis. Hargreaves additionally acclaimed adjustment alternating both abandon of the new arch – alone 3/4″. Finally, Hargreaves expressed connected affair about pavers that bare to be anchored with absorption to Package #2.

On March 18, 2005, Hargreaves beatific a account amend advertence in pertinent allotment the afterward concerns: clearing of the esplanade on both abandon of the new bridge; a allegation for pavers to be fixed; SS river jet shrouds; Access bank bushing absolute beneath the 100-year flood level; bank #1 west ancillary cladding – continuous credible . . . .

On April 1, 2005, Hargreaves issued a account amend reiterating the above problems. Hargreaves afresh acclaimed that The Access bank bushing absolute was beneath the 100-year flood level and was a “red akin concern.”

On April 7, 2005, Dan Kral of River Burghal issued a announcement to Hargreaves with archetype to Continental that an acceding had been accomplished as to the cladding abounding amid the cladding and the wall. Masonry Specialists had proposed a fix with an estimated cost of $36,000 which Dan Kral estimated to added acceptable cost $15,000-20,000. Dan Kral declared that he had authorized Continental to absolution the assignment to be done by Masonry Specialists.

(xiii) Hargreaves’ account amend of April 8, 2005 common the apropos as declared in above-mentioned account updates; listed a concern

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about the Access basement allowance aperture ability affiliation which was attributed to Moffatt & Nichol; acclaimed that LAM and DEW were to conduct a armpit appointment on May 9 and 10; and appear that the river jet breeze straightener remained a botheration as did the Passage 150 HP pump erfly valve and the SS river jet shrouds.

(xiv) On April 29, 2005, Hargreaves beatific acreage addendum to Dan Kral afterward Hargreaves’ armpit appointment which had occurred on April 28, and those armpit addendum board in pertinent allotment the following:

Confirm what is in Valley Crest’s adhesive mix (I did not see acrylic and it is about a wet mix, not dry). If this dry mix does not get wet to stabilize adhesive and afresh dry to set, afresh there is activity to be a big blossom problem.

More riprap at River Airing West.

How are the shrouds activity to be cut & adapted & affixed.

Expansion joints in bank cladding are missing.

Live stakes in riprap are too bank and are all asleep — replace.

How are Access uplights in beck anchored in?

Passage paver bend is not arena and looks crap.

Wall East has confused afresh 1/4” back last marked.

On May 3, 2005, Hargreaves beatific a announcement to Jay Floyd of Arcadis with a archetype to Dan Kral which declared in pertinent part as follows with account to bank #2:

Since Dennis Gowins’ aftermost appraisal that the bank had accomplished its movement out, it has indeed confused out about 1/4” at the top circle with

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the arch breadth it was ahead marked. This I accept seen.

The chat from armpit is that bank #3 is still settling and has absurd some cladding over it. This I accept not seen.

As the cladding is continuing activity on for the opening, this is Arcadis’ aftermost adventitious to do whatever you allegation to do afore it gets real big-ticket to do any added analysis or alleviative action.

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(xvi) On June 10, 2005,5 Hargreaves issued a account amend reporting in red ink that the bank #2 was affective afresh and assigned albatross to Arcadis and Stein; and Hargreaves already again appear the clearing of both abandon of the new arch and the need to ameliorate bank #2 sub-drain. Hargreaves additionally declared that The Access 150 HP pump erfly valve had still not been addressed; nor had the SS river jet shrouds accession been conducted; nor had the jet assorted abbreviate been addressed; G1 accessories a the Access were damaged; Access wet mortar mix was a problem; added riprap on the bend of the non- brand river airing bare to be installed; amplification collective on Access cladding was a problem; asleep alive stakes bare to be replaced; Access uplights (G6) acclimation capacity were noted; a Access paver accomplishment on the credible ancillary was noted; a Passage river jet wind sensor was noted.

(xvii) On June 24, 2005, Hargreaves issued a Package 2 bite list which recommended in pertinent allotment amid added things as follows: “Fix the baptize akin control; apple-pie & rub algae on wall, accomplish & terraces; adjustment debilitated joints at accomplish adjoining to runnel; analysis the wet adhesive mix; fix G6 ablaze fixtures; remove baptize stain on bank #1 arctic face and barricade top of the wall; appear to the SS aflame on the access arch ceilings; clean the account vault; complete cladding accession on bank #2; fix the baptize condoning system; adjustment damaged cladding on wall

The abundant achievement date for Package 2 was June 1, 2005.

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#2; SS river jet shrouds installation; install EJ on the bank #2 cladding; paver accomplishment on the credible side; adjustment aerial “crack on terrace angled walkway; alter dead/live stakes alternating the riprap bank; . . . .”

(xviii) Dan Kral contacted Hargreaves on Friday, July 29, 2005 with a “call for help” because things were falling afar at the Passage fountain. In response, Hargreaves contacted Dan Euser – the artist of the baptize affection – because the Access bubbler was allegedly falling afar to the point of actuality inoperable. In response, Dan Euser appointed a affair in Chattanooga for August 18, 2005.

(xix) On September 6, 2005, Hargreaves contacted Jeff Shelden of Moffatt & Nichol apropos a band-aid to the west end bang out cogwheel settlement, and Jeff Shelden recommended “remov[ing] the absolute slab and inspect[ing] the breadth adjacent to the river walk. They should accomplish abiding that the clarify fabric and riprap is appropriately installed to ensure that absolute is not actuality absent at this location. This may crave some blasting of the sub-grade material. . . . Next, the breadth should be vibrocompacted and afresh the slab can be re-installed.” On the aforementioned day, Hargreaves beatific the recommendations to Dan Kral.

Contrary to the position of Hargreaves, it is arguable by Chattanooga that issues with the Activity were aboriginal brought to the absorption of the Administrator of the Accessible Works Administration for the Burghal about July 19, 2007. According to Chattanooga, above-mentioned to a report involving electrical affairs with The Passage, the Burghal and CDRC were blind of any absolute architecture or architecture defects with the Project. Afterwards the identification of potential problems in July 2007, Chattanooga assassin TWH Architects, Inc. (“TWH”) to appraise the Activity and adapt a address apropos the problems. TWH issued its address about a year afterwards on June 27, 2008. Hargreaves observes that the TWH address fatigued four capital areas of concern: access bank defects, abnormal accession of accurate pavers, electrical defects and defects in the architecture and/or architecture of the amphitheater and sidewalks constant in clearing of the amphitheater and the sidewalks – items Hargreaves had ahead identified and aloft with RiverCity.

RiverCity relates that it kept Chattanooga and its assembly absolutely informed and adapted apropos the cachet of architecture affairs and absolute changes throughout the Project. According to RiverCity, Chattanooga gave absolute or aberrant approval regarding

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all issues aloft pertaining to the Project. In fact, RiverCity asserts that “in some instances the changes at affair were fabricated at the administration of Burghal employees.” RiverCity maintains that Chattanooga never accurate a affirmation or affair that the authoritative and/or reporting obligations were not actuality accomplished by RiverCity.

After cancellation of the TWH report, Chattanooga beatific belletrist to the all-important entities in an attack to admit mediation. Back no acknowledgment was accessible to the address for mediation, Chattanooga filed clothing on March 19, 2009, adjoin Hargreaves, Continental, and RiverCity, alleging several theories of accretion arising out of the architecture and architecture of portions of the Project.

Hargreaves, in its answer, aloft the acknowledging aegis that the statute of limitations barred the lawsuit. In November 2010, Hargreaves filed a motion for arbitrary judgment alienated that the account of activity filed by Chattanooga was barred by the applicative statute of limitations that provides accomplishments such as this one allegation be filed aural three years from the accident of the account of action. See Tenn. Code Ann. § 28-3-105 (2000). Hargreaves asserted that Chattanooga had ability of the Project’s problems added than three years above-mentioned to the March 2009 filing of the action. MSC, one of the subcontractors on the Project, filed a abstracted motion for arbitrary acumen that congenital Hargreaves’ motion and added added acknowledged authorities and relied on added abstracts produced by Chattanooga during the advance of discovery. All added aboriginal defendants and third-party defendants (except for Pfists Enterprises, Inc.) aing in Hargreaves’ aboriginal motion. Accordingly, the arguments aloft by Hargreaves represent all the defendants participating in this appeal.

A audition on the motions for arbitrary acumen was captivated on March 7, 2011. As Hargreaves argued to the cloister that RiverCity served as CDRC’s abettor with absorption to communications apropos the Project, the balloon cloister advised the Acceding between CDRC, owner, and RiverCity, the development manager, that addendum as follows at paragraph 3.3:

[CDRC] shall account all instructions from [CDRC] to the Activity Architect, the Artist or added Activity consultants or parties accouterment labor, equipment, abstracts or casework in affiliation with the Activity to be accommodating through [RiverCity] to the end of accouterment constant instructions and communications. It is capital to the architecture activity that [RiverCity] be the arch point of acquaintance and aqueduct of all admonition and instructions amid [CDRC] and such contractors and consultants. Accordingly, [CDRC] agrees that [RiverCity] shall be [CDRC]’s adumbrative for such purpose and shall be so appointed in the arrangement with contractors, the Activity Architect

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and any added consultants. Breadth admonition through [RiverCity] is not feasible, [CDRC] will promptly board [RiverCity] with a accounting archetype of any accounting apprehension accustomed by [CDRC] anon to the parties complex in the Project or a accounting arbitrary of any articulate admonition so given, as applicable. [CDRC] shall baptize [RiverCity] as the affair to accept communications and abstracts from the added parties complex in the Project. [RiverCity] agrees to acquaint with [CDRC] with account to any development which will abnormally and materially appulse either the Activity Agenda or the Project Amount Budget.

(Emphasis added.). Based on the Agreement, all the defendants asserted that all information imparted to RiverCity, the appointed representative, should be accustomed to CDRC.

Counsel for RiverCity acclaimed at the hearing:

We were the owners’ representative. We weren’t engineers, architects or experts.6 The Burghal of Chattanooga was kept consistently a regarding this accurate activity and, in essence, in some respects we’re affectionate of puzzled and abide to be as to why they sued us for what we did on their behalf, but we accede that arbitrary acumen should be accustomed on account of all the defendants.

(Emphasis added.). In acknowledgment to the balloon court’s analytic as to whether RiverCity served as an agent,7 admonition added replied:

[A]ll the acknowledged abstracts or otherwise, we’re the owner’s representative on their account pertaining to the contract. It’s accurately in there, so I’m somewhat puzzled as to some of those arguments on that.

RiverCity acclaimed in its acknowledgment that it “was not assassin to body or architecture this [P]roject; CDRC entered into absolute affairs with” the added defendants for those purposes. RiverCity declared that CDRC “maintained abounding ascendancy over [the added defendants] for architecture and architecture for the [P]roject.”

“Agency in its broadest faculty includes every affiliation in which one actuality acts for or represents another.” Kerney v. Aetna Cas. & Surety Co., 648 S.W.2d 247, 252 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1982) (quoting Howard v. Haven, 281 S.W.2d 480, 485 (Tenn. 1955)). “Whether an bureau has been created is to be bent by the relations of the parties as they in actuality abide beneath their agreements or acts. If relations abide which will aggregate agency, it will be an agency, whether the parties accustomed it to be or not.” Id. at 252-53 (quoting Smith v. Tennessee Coach Co., 194 S.W.2d 867, 869 (Tenn. 1946)).

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The balloon cloister accustomed the motions for arbitrary acumen of all aboriginal defendants and third-party defendants on March 8, 2011. The cloister begin that the accord of the Burghal and CDRC with RiverCity was authentic by the Agreement. The court’s memorandum appraisal and adjustment provided as follows:

This case arises out of a altercation apropos a architecture activity on the Chattanooga river front. The Plaintiff entered into an acceding with River Burghal Company for the administration and allocation of design, construction and development of the project. Based aloft this agreement, River Burghal was to act as the acquaintance point and abettor of the City. As the activity proceeded, problems arose. These problems were afresh accurate and acclaimed to the parties involved. The problems were so credible that alike an alone who is not a architecture expert, Lee Norris, took apprehension of several defects and relayed these problems via email on May 2, 2005, to the adapted parties.

Despite the problems, the Affirmation of Abundant Achievement was issued on June 1, 2005. Afterwards the Abundant Achievement date, agnate problems connected as credible by an email beatific hardly over a ages later, on July 29, 2005. An email was beatific from an abettor of River City, and in the words of the employee, the email was a “call for help” because things were “falling apart.” This accusation was not commenced until March 1[9], 2009. The parties accede that the applicative statute of limitations for architecture defects is three (3) years.

It is this Court’s opinion, based aloft the pleadings and the absorbed support, the Plaintiff had apprehension at atomic by July 29, 2005, of a credible affirmation against accession party. The Plaintiff bootless to adapted book aural the appropriate accustomed time period, and appropriately this Cloister lacks administration to apprehend this case. The Defendants’ Motions for Arbitrary Acumen are GRANTED.

The balloon cloister fabricated the announcement appraisal and adjustment the final acumen of the court pursuant to Aphorism 54.02 of the Tennessee Rules of Civilian Procedure on April 25, 2011. This address followed.

II. ISSUES

The issues aloft by Chattanooga are as follows:

Whether the balloon cloister erred in acceding arbitrary acumen against

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Chattanooga as to all claims as a aftereffect of award that the applicative statute of limitations for anniversary of the claims began active at atomic by July 29, 2005.

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2. Whether the balloon cloister erred in acceding arbitrary acumen against Chattanooga as to the claims instead of acceding added time pursuant to Aphorism 56.07 of the Tennessee Rules of Civilian Procedure8 to complete written analysis and booty depositions.

III. STANDARD OF REVIEW

Summary acumen is adapted if the “pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, calm with affidavits, if any, appearance there are no 18-carat issues as to any absolute facts and that the affective affair is advantaged to acumen as a amount of law.” Tenn. R. Civ. P. 56.03. In Hannan v. Alltel Publ’g Co., 270 S.W.3d 1 (Tenn. 2008)9 and Martin v. Norfolk Southern Ry. Co., 271 S.W.3d 76 (Tenn. 2008), the Cloister captivated that to be acknowledged on a motion for arbitrary judgment, a affective affair must

“Tenn. R. Civ. P. 56.07 is advised to serve as an added aegis adjoin an extravagant or abortive admission of arbitrary judgment. While it insures that a active affair is accustomed a reasonable befalling to adapt its case, it is not invoked to aid parties who accept been apathetic or dilatory.” Kenyon v. Handal, 122 S.W.3d 743, 753 n. 7 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2003).

The contempo legislation apropos Hannan does not affect this case because this amount was filed in 2009. See Burress v. Burghal of Franklin, 809 F.Supp.2d 795, 817 n. 7 (M.D. Tenn. 2011) (“[T]he Tennessee Accepted Assembly has legislatively overruled . . . Hannan, but the new statute[ ] alone appl[ies] to cases filed on or afterwards . . . July 1, 2011 . . . . Tenn. SB 1114/HB 158 (to be codification at Tenn.Code Ann. § 20–16–101), ambience alternating new arbitrary acumen standard).” Tennessee Code Annotated breadth 20-16-101 specifically provides as follows:

20-16-101. Accountability of affirmation in arbitrary acumen motions.

In motions for arbitrary acumen in any civilian activity in Tennessee, the affective affair who does not buck the accountability of affirmation at balloon shall abound on its motion for arbitrary judgment if it:

(1) Submits acknowledging affirmation that negates an capital aspect of the nonmoving party’s claim; or

(2) Demonstrates to the cloister that the nonmoving party’s affirmation is bereft to authorize an capital aspect of the nonmoving party’s claim.

Acts 2011, ch. 498, § 3. July 1, 2011.

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either (1) affably abate an capital aspect of the non-moving party’s claim, or (2) appearance that the non-moving affair cannot prove an capital aspect of the affirmation at trial. Once the affective affair has annoyed this burden, the non-moving affair allegation afresh authenticate with affirmation above the pleadings that issues of actuality abide that allegation go to trial. Byrd v. Hall, 847 S.W.2d 208, 211 (Tenn. 1993).

Summary acumen is inappropriate back the facts advance to added than one reasonable conclusion. Seavers v. Methodist Med. Ctr. of Oak Ridge, 9 S.W.3d 86, 91 (Tenn. 1999). Arbitrary acumen allegation be overruled “if there is agnosticism as to whether or not . . . [a] genuine affair charcoal for trial.” Buddy Lee Attractions, Inc. v. William Morris Agency, Inc., 13 S.W.3d 343, 347 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1999).

IV. DISCUSSION

Hargreaves asserts it was adapted to address any problems with the Activity to RiverCity. In turn, RiverCity was adapted by arrangement to act as a aqueduct for casual these communications alternating to CDRC, who had assassin RiverCity to be its “eyes and ears” with account to the development of the Project. Pursuant to the Agreement, RiverCity was “to organize, coordinate, and board admonition with account to design, architecture and development of the Project.” In particular, RiverCity’s “Development Services” are detailed as follows:

2.2.7 Architecture Meetings. Agenda and conduct affairs to discuss architecture procedures, advance and scheduling with Artist and the Activity Architect. As accounted necessary, [RiverCity] shall adapt account of such affairs and promptly administer such affair account to [CDRC] and the affair attendees or absolute the Artist or Activity Administrator Artist to adapt and administer such minutes, as appropriate.

***

2.2.10 Bite List. Alike with the Activity Artist in its analysis of the Activity to accredit the Activity Artist to actuate the date of substantial completion. At the abundant achievement by the Artist of the Project work, adviser the Activity Artist in its analysis of the Activity and alertness of a abundant “Punch List” allegorical any items which require completion, accession or repair.

***

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2.3 Reporting. [RiverCity] shall accouter to [CDRC] account reports absolute (i) a cachet of construction; (ii) a allegory of the Activity Budget to architecture costs incurred through the date of the address and a comparison of the Activity Agenda to the assignment absolutely completed through the date of the report; (iii) a arbitrary of change orders fabricated during the ages covered by the report; and (iv) any afterlight to the Activity Agenda and/or Activity Cost Budget fabricated during the ages covered by the report.

Additionally, the arrangement entered into amid Hargreaves and CDRC – AIA Document B141-1997 – states as follows in Breadth 1.2.2.3:

[CDRC]’s Appointed Adumbrative articular in Paragraph 1.1.3 shall be accustomed to act on [CDRC]’s account with account to the Project. [CDRC] or [CDRC]’s Appointed Adumbrative shall cede decisions in a timely address pertaining to abstracts submitted by the Artist in adjustment to avoid absurd adjournment in the alike and consecutive advance of the Architect’s services.

Paragraph 1.1.3 lists RiverCity as the Owner’s Designated

RiverCity acutely had a assignment to address to CDRC and was accustomed to act on CDRC’s behalf. Accordingly, Hargreaves and the added defendants/third-party defendants were advantaged to await aloft RiverCity’s ability and notice. See Am. Jur.2d Bureau § 274 (2010). All that RiverCity knew apropos the problems with the Activity allegation be imputed to CDRC.

In the burning matter, the applicative statute of limitations is Tennessee Code Annotated breadth 28-3-105(1) (2000), pursuant to which accomplishments for injuries to claimed or absolute property shall be commenced aural “three (3) years from the accruing of the account of action.”

Hargreaves asserts that amid October of 2004 and no afterwards than September 6, 2005, CDRC, through RiverCity, knew of the declared acreage accident on the Activity in ablaze of the abounding belletrist broadcast to RiverCity by Hargreaves. RiverCity acknowledges that it “regularly kept CDRC and the Burghal of Chattanooga and its assembly absolutely aware and adapted apropos the cachet of architecture and absolute changes.” Hargreaves argues that Chattanooga additionally knew of the problems through centralized discussions with advisers apropos the Project. Despite accepting such knowledge, Chattanooga waited until 2008 to accept an artist analysis the issues, and afresh waited accession year – March 19, 2009 – to book a complaint for damages. Hargreaves argues that Chattanooga allegation be found

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to accept accustomed of the problems afore March 19, 2006 – three years above-mentioned to the filing of the complaint.

It is argued by Chattanooga that the account of activity did not accumulate afore March 19, 2006, because the admonition imparted by Hargreaves to RiverCity in backward 2004 and throughout 2005, anxious alone “minor antidotal work.” The Chattanooga entities await on the affirmation of able Vance Travis of TWH, who claims that “all items listed in the [Hargreaves] Affirmation . . . are ‘punch list’ items.” According to Mr. Travis, “the ‘punch list’ becomes a allotment of the affirmation of abundant completion[; i]n the architecture industry a bite account is authentic as the architect’s account of assignment to be adapted or performed by the artist above-mentioned to achievement of the arrangement for construction.” It is fatigued by Chattanooga that Mr. McMillan of Hargreaves additionally categorized these problems as ‘punch list’ items. Therefore, according to Chattanooga, items declared as “punch list” did not board notice that the problems could not be adapted above-mentioned to the achievement of the Project; such “punch list” items could not be advised cogent abundant to aggregate aperture of the architecture arrangement and would not accept started the alarm active on the applicative statute of limitations.

Hargreaves responds that the easiest way to abnegate the contentions of Chattanooga is to analyze the observations and recommendations provided by Mr. McMillan of Hargreaves in 2005 with the observations and recommendations provided by Mr. Travis in the 2008 TWH Report. The TWH Report, in its controlling summary, provides as follows:

Part One-Demolition, Reconstruction, Electrical and Plumbing

Wall Adjustment – We acclaim the East, West, and Arctic walls to be burst bottomward to the 100 year flood line. Any absolute accessible cavities amid the absolute appearance and accurate application walls should be grouted solid. The block walls would be rebuilt with a abounding bed of mortar. Precast accurate arresting units will alter absolute cap blocks. Included will be the accession of through-wall aflame and weeps at the 100 year flood line acceptable to adjust burden in a flood accident greater than the 100 flood year elevation, and board arising at controlled locations to hopefully minimize the absolute bank staining by efflorescence. The West stepped walls adjacent to the Aquarium would be repaired and accept caked accurate copings. Remediation assignment will activity at the arch to abstracted the appearance from the arch beating and movement. Annihilation and about-face will require the abatement and re-installation of all art assignment cutouts and apparently the round bank medallions on the West side.

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Paving Adjustment – We acclaim the complete abatement of all paving units on the beach beds aural the baptize feature. The admeasurement would board the runnel adjoining to the Aquarium, all stepped landings arch bottomward to and including the basin bottom. Annihilation and about-face will crave the abatement and re-installation of the baptize spider at the basin bottom.

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Electrical/Plumbing Adjustment – We acclaim the complete abatement of all alcove ablaze fixtures, housings, and alliance boxes from the paving areas, along with the aerial accessories beneath the bridge. All absolute electrical panels would accept able weatherproof housings, and the pump allowance equipment amid in the basement at the high end may allegation adjustments for proper clearances. New lighting would be provided and absorbed to a lighting truss amid alternating the aisle adjoining to the Market Street Bridge. This truss would be the ambition of an arts admission for a cladding adapted to the aesthetics of The Passage.

In comparison, the observations and recommendations of Hargreaves to RiverCity provide as follows:

1) On October 28, 2004, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity that bank #1 is moving. It is additionally acclaimed that the esplanade is clearing on both abandon of new access arch and causing aerial cracks on bank #1 adverse the river. Hargreaves recommended that Arcadis get complex to board a repair strategy.

2) On January 7, 14, and 28, 2005, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity that the Access bank cardinal one was settling, ascendancy joints were in the amiss place, and the pavers bare to be fixed.

3) On January 25, 2005, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity the affair about baptize brief into or actuality trapped abaft bank cladding in the Passage.

4) On February 1, 2005, Continental appear to RiverCity that the concrete bank on the east ancillary of the Access was convolute as it was out of erect by three inches and out of alignment by six inches. Continental said that the masonry cladding would accept to be afflicted from the design. (Hargreaves advised a straight, solid bank with no air gaps rather than a bank with veneer cladding added to a serpentine-like structure).

5) On February 25, 2005, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity that the Passage

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wall was moving, the esplanade on both abandon of the arch was settling, and the pavers bare to be fixed. Hargreaves additionally acclaimed a affair about the account enclosures accepting to do with the electrical system.

6) On March 1, 2005, Hargreaves presented a abundant announcement to RiverCity about the problems at the Access and the achievability of annihilation of one of the affective walls and the allegation for new construction.

7) On March 11, 2005, Hargreaves appear movement of Bank #2, a 3/4″ drop on both abandon of the new bridge, and a botheration with the Package 2 pavers.

8) On March 18, 2005, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity afresh that the pavers bare to be anchored and that the Access bank bushing absolute was beneath the 100 year flood level.

9) On April 1, 2005, Hargreaves appear that the bushing absolute was below the 100 year flood level, and it was a red akin concern.

10) On April 8, 2005, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity its apropos about the Access basement allowance aperture ability connection.

11) On April 29, 2005, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity its apropos about the adhesive mix abaft the appearance that attaches to the bank with specific reference to a accessible big blossom problem. Hargreaves additionally acclaimed the allegation to body a accurate bank because of complaining concerns. Hargreaves appear that amplification joints were missing in the wall. Hargreaves appear that the East Bank had confused accession 1/4″. Hargreaves appear affair about how some of the lighting in the Access at the runnels had been done.

12) On May 3, 2005, Hargreaves appear that Bank #2 was affective and had absurd cladding on it and that it was the aftermost adventitious to do whatever needed to be done afore alleviative activity is necessary. Additionally appear that Bank #3 was clearing with associated accident to cladding.

13) On June 10, 2005, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity that Bank #2 was affective again, that there was clearing on both abandon of the new bridge, that there was a botheration with the adhesive for the pavers, and that the expansion joints for the cladding were missing.

14) On September 6, 2005, Hargreaves appear to RiverCity problems

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regarding the bump-out terrace cogwheel settlement.

Obviously, the majority of the problems articular by Mr. McMillan of Hargreaves – the walls, the pavers, the mortar, the cladding, the amplification joints, the esplanade (sidewalks), bank bushing beneath the 100 year flood level, problems with blossom – additionally are addressed in the TWH Address in a constant fashion. The contentions of Chattanooga that the problems articular by Hargreaves in 2004 and 2005 were accessory bite account items necessitating simple antidotal measures allegation be disregarded. Descriptions of items involving agreement such as “demolition” and “reconstruction” artlessly cannot be considered bite account items acute “minor antidotal work.”

Hargreaves added addendum that emails produced by Chattanooga during written analysis acknowledge that Burghal advisers were discussing the architecture defects and property accident amid themselves and with advisers of RiverCity during May 2005. According to Hargreaves, these abstracts acknowledge an acquaintance of the accident and credible construction defects added than three years afore the accusation was filed. Specifically, on May 2, 2005, Lee Norris, Director, Burghal Advanced Services, Administration of Accessible Works, Burghal of Chattanooga, sent an email to Dan Kral of RiverCity asking:

Who is amenable for acclimation architecture defects?

That aforementioned day, he was a that

CDRC has been the city[’]s eyes and aerial on all projects including infrastructure. They are amenable for the final walkthrough and getting bite account items corrected. Obviously, the artist is amenable for fixing problems during the assurance aeon and afterwards that it is US.

Later that aforementioned day, Mr. Norris replied,

If we don’t accept addition complex in the final checkout phase, I see connected term issues. I absolved the beach Sunday for a abbreviate while and calmly identified 6-7 issues that will allegation to be corrected.

Mr. Kral added responded to Mr. Norris,

As I am abiding you saw in my added email. Architecture defects and/or damage as a aftereffect of architecture is covered in all of our contracts.

Hargreaves added contends that the affidavits of Don Lewis, Accepted Supervisor of the

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River Advanced Park for the Parks and Recreation Administration of the Burghal of Chattanooga, and Bob Saylors, the Administrator of Parks for the Parks and Recreation Administration of the Burghal of Chattanooga, acknowledge that Chattanooga had apprehension of problems with the electrical circuits for the alcove lights alternating the west bank of The Access in 2005.

“Accrual” in a acreage amercement activity beneath Tennessee Code Annotated breadth 28- 3-105(1) occurs aloft discovery. Damron v. Media Gen., Inc., 3 S.W.3d 510, 512 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1999). A statute of limitations will not be tolled in cases breadth the plaintiff has admonition that would abode a reasonable actuality on analysis apprehension that he may accept a cause of action. See Estate of Morris v. Morris, 329 S.W.3d 779, 783 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2009). In Northeast Knox. Util. Dist. v. Stanfort Constr. Co., 206 S.W.3d 454, 460-461 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2006), we captivated that “[a]ccrual did not crave Stanfort to absolutely apperceive the specific blazon of acknowledged affirmation it had, and its abridgement of ability apropos the specific attributes of the defendants’ declared tortious conduct is extraneous for purposes of free back the account of action accrued.”

Chattanooga had effective and absolute ability of the architecture defects and accident apropos the Project. The affirmation supports the assurance of the balloon cloister that Chattanooga had apprehension of a credible affirmation adjoin accession affair at atomic three years prior to the filing of the complaint and bootless to adapted book this accusation aural the statute of limitations aeon codification at Tennessee Code Annotated breadth 28-3-105. As the facts are not in altercation and acutely appearance that a account of activity has accrued and that the statute of limitations has run, arbitrary acumen may be entered. Osborne Enter., Inc. v. Burghal of Chattanooga, 561 S.W.2d 160, 165 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1977). The balloon cloister did not corruption its acumen in abnegation from acceding added time for discovery.10 Hargreaves’ motion for arbitrary acumen was filed one year and eight months afterwards the complaint was filed. As the statute of limitations aegis was aloft in Hargreaves’s aboriginal answer, Chattanooga had been acquainted of the affair back June 1, 2009. Hargreaves had responded to the written analysis requests six months above-mentioned to the filing of the motion and 10 months above-mentioned to the audition on the motion. Chattanooga had 10 months to analysis the documents. The date for the articulate altercation on the arbitrary acumen motion was agreed aloft 45 canicule above-mentioned to the hearing. Chattanooga had abounding time to conduct discovery. Hargreaves and the other defendants and third-party defendants were advantaged to acumen as a amount of law.

Counsel for Chattanooga did not address depositions of assembly of Hargreaves or RiverCity or anyone else. They did not book a motion for analysis or a motion to abide the hearing. Instead, they waited until the day of the agreed aloft audition date to altercate the affair that application of the arbitrary acumen motion was premature. As acclaimed by defendants, cat-and-mouse until the day of the audition on a motion for arbitrary acumen to seek added time is usually too late. See Harden v. Danek Medical, Inc., 985 S.W.2d 449, 453-54 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1998).

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V. CONCLUSION

The acumen of the balloon cloister is affirmed and the account adjourned for accumulating of costs below. Costs on address are burdened to the appellants, the Burghal of Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Chattanooga Burghal Redevelopment Corporation.

Here is the agnostic appraisal by Judge Franks:

IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF TENNESSEE AT KNOXVILLE January 31, 2012 Session

CITY OF CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE, et al., v. HARGREAVES ASSOCIATES, INC., et al.

Appeal from the Circuit Cloister for Hamilton County No. 09C403 Jacqueline S. Bolton, Judge

No. E2011-01197-COA-R3-CV-FILED-JUNE 21, 2012

DISSENTING OPINION

I respectfully bone from the majority’s Appraisal acknowledging the Balloon Court’s granting of arbitrary judgments to all defendants. In my view, the almanac in this case does not authenticate that this case is accomplished for arbitrary judgment.

Regarding the claims adjoin River City, the Burghal of Chattanooga/CDRC declared that:

River Burghal was contractually answerable to baby-sit the beach activity and was to board account belletrist apropos same, including any change orders, to the City;

River Burghal breached the arrangement by declining to agenda architecture meetings, declining to board account belletrist to the City, and declining to access City approval afore acknowledging changes to the architecture (specifically barter of adhesive and use of accessories in cogitating pools not constant with the plans);

River Burghal acted in balance of its authority; and

the Burghal was damaged thereby.

River Burghal filed an Answer, asserting that it kept the Burghal a apropos the architecture advance and changes, and that all advertisement requirements were met/exceeded.

Hargreaves (architect) filed the aboriginal Motion for Arbitrary Judgment, and filed a Statement of Undisputed Facts, asserting that Hargreaves appear numerous construction/design problems to River Burghal from October 2004 through June 2005. Hargreaves filed an affirmation of its employee, Gavin McMillan, who declared that he was the arch in allegation of this project, and that he announced abundantly with River City apropos the problems Hargreaves encountered. McMillan declared that he beatific numerous memos and emails to all the parties involved, including River City, and absorbed copies of those communications. One admonition which was relied aloft heavily by both the Trial Cloister and the majority, was a announcement anachronous 7/30/05 from McMillan to “DEW” which states that McMillan got a alarm from Dan Kral (of River City) on the above-mentioned day which he characterizes as a “call for help”, advertence that Kral relayed that the bubbler was “falling apart to the point of actuality inoperable”. There is no absolute email or accounting affidavit in the almanac apropos this declared chat added than this memo, which was not to or from anyone at River City.

The added admonition which is relied aloft by the defendants and the majority appraisal in this case to authorize apprehension is a cord of emails that were beatific in May 2005, amid Lee Norris, a administrator with the Chattanooga Burghal Administration of Accessible Works, and Dan Kral with River City. Norris asked who was amenable for architecture defects, stating that he had absolved the beach afresh and noticed 6-7 issues that bare to be corrected. Norris afterwards explained in his Affirmation that this announcement alone anxious accessory corrective issues that he noticed, and that he had neither the albatross nor ability to analyze latent architecture defects, and added that the Burghal had no apprehension of any absolute architecture defects until July 2007.

The Burghal filed a Acknowledgment to the Motion for Arbitrary Acumen and the Statement of Undisputed Facts, and declared the Burghal knew of no architecture defects until July 2007. The Burghal filed an Affirmation of Don Lewis, who declared that he was Accepted Supervisor with the Parks and Recreation Administration of Chattanooga, and that his administration took over administration of the activity afterwards abundant achievement in 2005. Lewis declared that they had no apprehension of any absolute affair with the architecture of the activity until bounce 2007 (although there was some accessory affair with alcove lighting acclaimed in 2005). The Burghal additionally filed an Affirmation of Bob Saylors, Administrator of the Parks and Recreation Department, who additionally said that the Burghal had no apprehension of absolute issues in affiliation with the design/construction of the activity until the bounce of 2007. Further, the Burghal filed an Affirmation of Steve Leach, who declared that he was Administrator of the Burghal of Chattanooga Accessible Works Department, and that electrical issues with the Access were credible on July 19, 2007, and that above-mentioned to this date, the Burghal nor CDRC had any ability of any architecture or architecture defects with the Project. Leach declared that these issues acquired the Burghal to appoint TWH Architects to analysis the activity and analyze any problems, and that TWH issued its address account the

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construction/design defects in July 2008.

The Burghal additionally filed a archetype of a letter it accustomed in analysis abstracts that is dated August 9, 2007, and is addressed to Gavin McMillan with Hargreaves, from Paul Brock with River City. This letter states that River Burghal is aghast with Hargreaves’ acknowledgment to issues with the Access wall, and that a accessible assurance affair had developed afterwards one of the masonry units from the bank had collapsed the above-mentioned weekend. Brock states “It has been almost a year back you came to Chattanooga to admonish us apropos the bank and the problems it is experiencing”, and added alleges that Hargreaves did not appropriately acquaint River Burghal of the architecture modifications fabricated during architecture and the abeyant after-effects thereof.

River Burghal filed a Motion for Arbitrary Acumen on its own behalf, as did all the defendants, but River Burghal filed no acknowledging documentation. Plaintiffs advance that Dan Kral of River Burghal was appointed to be deposed as were abounding added actors in this project, but arbitrary acumen was accustomed afore depositions took place.

The Balloon Cloister disqualified that River Burghal had apprehension of architecture defects as of the July 29, 2005, “call for help” allegedly fabricated by Dan Kral of River City, and appropriately that the Burghal had apprehension as of that date, apprehension the Complaint filed in March of 2009 abortive beneath the three year statute of limitations. The Balloon Cloister afresh accustomed arbitrary acumen to all defendants, including River City. The majority appraisal affirms that ruling.

First and foremost, it is important to agenda the City’s claims adjoin River Burghal were absolutely altered than the claims adjoin the added defendants. The Burghal declared claims of aperture of arrangement and acting alfresco the able ambit of authority, asserting that River Burghal bootless to accumulate the Burghal a apropos design/construction changes and problems on this Project, and added that River Burghal accustomed changes to the architecture afterwards City approval. These claims are not claims of abrasion to absolute property, as were the claims against the added defendants. Rather, these are carefully aperture of arrangement claims which are subject to a six year statute of limitations rather than a three year statute of limitations. See Tenn. Code Ann. §28-3-105 and 109. As such, the claims filed in March 2009 adjoin River City were timely, and River Burghal was not advantaged to a arbitrary judgment. Moreover, as abettor of the Burghal it had a fiduciary assignment to the City.

Regarding the added defendants, however, the statute of limitations is a three year aeon which accrues aloft discovery, i.e., back the plaintiff has admonition that would abode a reasonable actuality on analysis apprehension that he may accept a account of action, as the majority appraisal accurately explained. The botheration in this case is that there is a dispute apropos back plaintiffs absolutely had such information. As declared earlier, Gavin McMillan of Hargreaves asserted that he appear abundant problems to River Burghal during the project,

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and that afterwards the activity was completed, he accustomed a alarm on July 29, 2005, from Dan Kral, which he characterized as a “call for help” because the bubbler was “falling apart”. While the bubbler was alone a allotment of the absolute project, this could still be advised constructive apprehension that there were defects acute added inquiry. The botheration is that this is evidence set alternating by a defendant, and on a arbitrary acumen motion, it is the affirmation of the plaintiff or non-movant that is to be accustomed as true, with any doubts apropos the actuality of a 18-carat affair of absolute actuality actuality absolute in the non-moving party’s favor. Martin v. Norfolk S. Ry. Co., 271 S.W.3d 76 (Tenn. 2008).

In contrast, the plaintiffs filed at atomic three affidavits from Burghal advisers who insisted that the Burghal was blind of any design/construction defects until at atomic the spring of 2007. All of these Burghal advisers declared that while they ability accept credible a few minor cosmetic-type defects afore that time, they were blind of any above defects until 2007, and that they didn’t apperceive the admeasurement of the defects until TWH issued its address in 2008. Further, the Burghal filed a letter that was beatific from River Burghal to Hargreaves in 2007, which impliedly asserts that River Burghal knew of no problems until summer of 2006. Accepting even the ancient of these dates as the accurate date of “discovery” of the architecture defects, the Complaint filed in March 2009 would be adapted as to all defendants.

This is a archetypal archetype of a 18-carat affair of absolute actuality apropos the date of analysis which should avert arbitrary judgment. Establishment of the date of discovery is acute to free whether the statute of limitations would bar plaintiffs’ claims. The Balloon Cloister and the majority appraisal both await aloft the July 29, 2005, “call for help” as establishing the date of discovery, back there is countervailing affirmation filed by the non- affective affair on this issue.

Further, alike if defendant’s affirmation could/should be accustomed as true, the Burghal has declared that it is absurdity to accredit the ability of River Burghal to the City, alike admitting River Burghal was acutely the City’s agent, because River Burghal allegedly exceeded its ambit of authority.

In adjustment to actuate whether the ability of the abettor may be accustomed to the principal, it is of “primary accent to ascertain the exact ambit and admeasurement of the agency.” Hurst Boillin Co. v. S.S. Jones & Co., 279 S.W. 392 (Tenn. 1925). These questions are to be “determined by the trier of actuality from all the facts and affairs in evidence.” Sloan v. Hall, 673 S.W.2d 548 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1984). Moreover, as appellants point out, there is case law which holds that the article of credible ascendancy is adapted to board the accessible absorption back a clandestine affair deals with a borough corporation. Faust v. Metro. Gov’t of Nashville, 206 S.W.3d 475 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2006). In that case, this Cloister stated, “Although a clandestine agent, acting in abuse of specific instructions, yet aural the scope

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of a accepted authority, may bind his principal, the rule, as to the aftereffect of a like act of a public agent, is otherwise.” Id. In this case, there was no assurance fabricated apropos the scope and admeasurement of River City’s bureau by the Balloon Court.

Summary acumen was break accustomed in this case based aloft the evidence presented. Plaintiffs’ aperture of arrangement claims adjoin River Burghal were not advised by the Balloon Court, and plaintiff’s affidavits and affirmation presented at the arbitrary acumen stage were not taken as true, in abuse of able arbitrary acumen standards. There was acutely a 18-carat affair of absolute actuality apropos back plaintiffs credible their claims. As such, the Balloon Court’s admission of arbitrary acumen should be reversed, and the cause adjourned for added proceedings.

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