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The House Appropriations Committee’s articulation vote on June 29, to accept an alteration repealing the 2001 Allotment for the Use of Aggressive Force, came as a abruptness to aldermanic leaders; reporters on Capitol Hill; and the amendment’s sponsor, Rep. Barbara Lee of California. “Whoa,” Lee tweeted aloof afterwards the vote, administering a photo of the amendment, which was to be added to a aegis appropriations bill.

This was a big deal. The AUMF is the arguable acknowledged ascendancy beneath which best U.S. counterterrorism activities are conducted. Lee has been on a mission to aition it aback Sept. 14, 2001, aback she casting the one and abandoned vote in Congress adjoin the aboriginal authorization.

That vote came as a abruptness too. Three canicule afterwards the attacks on the Apple Trade Center and the Pentagon, Lee knew that best associates of Congress, alike those who had misgivings about the authorization, would vote for it, but she affected at atomic a few would accompany her in dissent. As she writes in her memoir, “The accretion rang, votes were cast, and the lath was abounding of blooming lights. There was abandoned one red one. I had no abstraction I would be the abandoned one. Yikes.”

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In the 16 years that followed, Lee has sponsored abundant bills and motions advised to annul the authorization, to no avail. The vote in June, the aboriginal time a aldermanic board had anesthetized an AUMF repeal, showed that she’s assuredly no best abandoned in assertive that the allotment she describes as a “blank check” is no good. In the end, the House Rules Board bare Lee’s alteration out of the bill, arguing that it was not the adapted abode for such a measure. But the bipartisan board vote in abutment of Lee’s alteration is a affecting assurance that there’s movement. “I’ve been alive this for a while,” Lee told me in her appointment aftermost week. “This aloof adds added ammunition to the fire.”

History has vindicated abounding of Lee’s apropos about the AUMF: It has, as she warned, badly broadcast the president’s ability to use aggressive force, bargain aldermanic oversight, and awfully developed the U.S. aggressive brand about the apple with no end in afterimage to the escalation. These apropos are alike added acute today, beneath a admiral with little account for the aphorism of law or built-in norms. Lee was already the abandoned articulation in Congress adopting these apropos adjoin cutting opposition. That’s absolutely not the case today, with growing bipartisan affair that the AUMF is out of date. Is Barbara Lee assuredly winning?

Running slight added than 300 words, best of it preamble, the AUMF has its ability in its simplicity. The key allocation states:

Though broadly accepted at the time as acceding aggressive activity adjoin al-Qaida and the Afghan Taliban administering that was harboring it, the admeasurement includes no time or geographic distinctions, and three presidential administrations accept taken abounding advantage of that ambiguity. A 2016 Aldermanic Research Account address begin that the AUMF’s ascendancy had been invoked 37 times for operations in 14 countries. These included the advancing war in Afghanistan, the apprehension affairs at Guantanamo Bay, and lesser-known operations in countries such as the Philippines, Georgia, and Djibouti. The allotment has additionally been interpreted as allowing activity adjoin groups associated with al-Qaida, including some—such as Somalia’s al-Shabaab—that didn’t abide in 2001. In the advancing advance adjoin ISIS in Iraq, Syria, and elsewhere, the AUMF is actuality acclimated to absolve attacks on a accumulation that is itself actively affronted adjoin al-Qaida.

Lee, to her credit, saw this coming, admonishing on the attic of the House aloof a few canicule afterwards the building fell that “we charge be accurate not to commence on an advancing war with neither an avenue activity nor a focused target.” She compared the AUMF with the 1964 Tonkin Gulf resolution that preceded years of activity in Vietnam, and she apprenticed Congress not to carelessness “its own built-in responsibilities.”

“I knew again that it was too broad,” she says today. “You don’t accord any admiral that affectionate of authority.”

Like best of us, Lee remembers those canicule as anarchic and emotional. Her own arch of agents was in aching for a accessory who had been a commuter on Flight 93, the hijacked alike that comatose in Pennsylvania. In her book, she recalls adolescent associates of Congress cogent their own misgivings to her about the AUMF or black that they couldn’t accompany her no vote aback their own districts were not as advanced as the Bay Area Democratic bastion she represents. Added colleagues, such as John Lewis and Nancy Pelosi, apprenticed her to change her vote, d that it would doom her affairs for re-election.

“I knew again that it was too broad. You don’t accord any admiral that affectionate of authority.”

Lee credits her accomplishments as a analytic amusing artisan for her accommodation to act on her misgivings about the authorization, admitting the pressure. “As a psychiatric amusing artisan I knew, this is not how you appear up with annihilation that makes sense,” she said. “I knew it was an affecting moment. The aboriginal aphorism of psychotherapy 101 is that you don’t accomplish decisions area you’re affecting or angry. You delay and anticipate it through. You don’t aloof acknowledge aback you’re in that affectionate of affecting state.”

Lee says her angle on affairs of war and accord were additionally shaped by her childhood, growing up in El Paso, Texas, as the babe of an Army officer. “I had heard war belief growing up. I knew what a aloof war was adjoin not. We talked a lot about that.”

While she was walking aback to her appointment aloof afterwards her 2001 vote, she says her ancestor alleged to her to say, “You did the appropriate thing. Do not accelerate these kids into harm’s way until you apperceive what the heck is activity on.”

Not anybody was so understanding. Editorials denounced Lee as un-American and unpatriotic. The abhorrence mail, abundant of it absolutely racist, and afterlife threats started cloudburst into her appointment immediately. Capitol Police admiral followed her for weeks afterwards to accommodate protection. Though she did win re-election, her colleagues were appropriate that it would be a boxy fight: One of her opponents’ websites featured a photo of a animated Lee in advanced of the afire Apple Trade Center towers.

Lee’s political accomplishments fabricated it easier for opponents to acrylic her as a radical, out-of-touch leftist: She formed with the Black Panther Party on amusing programs in the Bay Area in the 1970s, entered balloter backroom on Shirley Chisholm’s beat 1972 presidential campaign, and had one of the best advanced voting annal in the House afterwards she was aboriginal adopted in 1998. But she says the majority of the belletrist and calls she accustomed were positive, and accessible assessment confused as George W. Bush’s advancing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq grew added unpopular. Nonetheless, admitting growing apropos about the amends of the war on terror, it connected to expand, targeting new groups in new countries.

When Barack Obama, whom Lee accurate in the Democratic primary in 2008, was elected, Lee anticipation her yearslong activity to aition the AUMF would assuredly accretion traction. Obama appropriate on abundant occasions that he didn’t accept the AUMF should be use indefinitely and that it care to be replaced. But he connected to adjustment bombinate strikes, appropriate operations raids, and—most controversially—the activity adjoin ISIS beneath its acutely bottomless remit.

Obama did eventually ask Congress for a specific anti-ISIS allotment in February 2015—six months afterwards the activity began—but it was never approved. In any event, Lee says she didn’t abutment that new allotment proposal, as it didn’t aition the 2001 authorization, appropriately abrogation the blank-check botheration in place. Reflecting on the Obama administration’s efforts, she says, “I anticipate they were serious, but I don’t anticipate they knew how to do it. They acclimated it like this administering is: for whatever they capital to do.”

As for the Trump administration, Lee says she hasn’t apparent any affirmation that it intends to adduce its own authorization. “We haven’t apparent one,” she says. “I’ve asked. It should be the White House bringing advanced an AUMF, and again we agitation it. You never [know] about this White House—what they’re up to day by day.”

Today, about two-thirds of Congress was not in appointment aback the aboriginal AUMF was approved. There’s boundless bipartisan abutment for the angle that the 2001 allotment is out of date and should be replaced by article added ill-fitted to a aegis threats, which accept afflicted absolutely a bit in the accomplished 16 years. The House Appropriations Board vote is a assurance that Congress would like to apply its built-in role in free how force is acclimated activity forward, as a host of added AUMF backup affairs that accept been put advanced in Congress in contempo years. In accession to anti-war liberals such as Lee, the associates affianced on this affair now run the area from acknowledged stickler Democrats such as Tim Kaine and Adam Schiff, to libertarians such as Rand Paul and Jeff Flake, to uber-hawks such as Lindsey Graham.

But, like aggregate abroad in Congress, there’s altercation about what anatomy the new acceding should take. Republicans aghast at Obama’s proposed anti-ISIS AUMF because it banned the use of “enduring abhorrent arena activity operations” and included a time absolute afore it would accept to be replaced by a new authorization. Abounding Democrats acquainted it was still too ample and could be acclimated to advance any cardinal of agitator groups with ambiguous ISIS links in assorted countries.

As for Lee, she says, “We charge to accept a agitation to accession all these issues,” but afterwards spending some time with her, it’s not bright to me what her ideal AUMF would absolutely attending like or if such a affair alike exists. The best acclaimed band from her 2001 speech—which was absolutely a adduce from the canonizing account captivated at the National Cathedral beforehand that day—was: “As we act, let us not become the angry that we deplore.” Meaning, she is acutely agnostic of the all-embracing angle of application aggressive force to activity terrorism.

Join Emily Bazelon, John Dickerson, and David Plotz as they altercate and agitation the week’s better political news.

Lee denies actuality a pacifist—she said so several times during our interview—but her voting almanac is finer pacifist: She voted adjoin Bill Clinton’s aggressive interventions in Iraq and Kosovo and supports the enactment of a “Department of Peace.” Though she was actual alive in advancement the U.S. to booty stronger activity to anticipate the genocide in Darfur—she was arrested at a beef alfresco the Sudanese Embassy, forth with several adolescent associates of the Aldermanic Black Caucus, in 2006—she says she would not accept advantaged aggressive activity to stop it. She credibility to the Civil War and Apple War II as about condonable uses of force but says, “I don’t anticipate I’ve apparent any aloof wars in my lifetime.”

Even as Lee’s colleagues accept appear about to her skepticism about advancing aggressive conflict, best don’t allotment her skepticism about aggressive activity itself.

I don’t absolutely allotment it either. But perhaps, afterwards 16 years of the war on terrorism,  which has amount the U.S. bags of lives and billions of dollars and debilitated built-in norms while acutely accepting us no afterpiece to analytic the botheration of agitated extremism, it’s time to alpha allurement whether Barbara Lee has a point.

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