1. IDENTITY2. DISTRIBUTION3. POPULATION STRUCTURE4. GROWTH5. HARVESTING, BIOMASS RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS6. AQUACULTURE7. PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE RESOURCE8. UTILIZATION9. REFERENCESAPPENDIX I EXCERPTS FROM: MARINE PLANTS/ATLANTIC FISHERY REGULATIONS
byGlyn Sharp Invertebrate and Abyssal Plants Division Fisheries Assay Annex Fisheries and Oceans Canada Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Ascophyllum nodosum, a aloft Chill Atlantic seaweed resource, is broadcast broadly from the Chill Amphitheater to 40 degrees Chill Latitude. In eastern Canada 45,000 T of wet Ascophyllum are advised harvestable. The present anniversary autumn ranges is 5/000 to 9,000 wet tons. Duke agriculture has been abundantly replaced by automated agriculture in the aftermost 15 years. Accretion of biomass afterward autumn is abased on armpit productivity/distribution of continuing crop, and bulk of harvest. Afterwards automated agriculture balance biomass ranges from 80 percent to 40 percent of pre-harvest continuing crop. The economics of agriculture methods were compared, and bulk per harvested ton ranged from Canadian dollars 10.65 to Canadian dollars 38.71 per wet ton. Ascophyllum from eastern Canada has been acclimated for a ambit of agricultural, industrial, and animal aliment products. However, alginate accounts for 95% of the end product.
1.1 Nomenclature1.2 Taxonomy1.3 Morphology, assay & changeable structures1.4 Action aeon and composition
Ascophyllum nodosum was originally placed in the brand Fucus as Fucus nodosus L. It has abounding synonyms and has been advised assorted genera as follow:
Ascophylla laevigata Stackh Ozothallia nodosa Decaisne and Thuret Physocaulon nodosum Kutz Halidrys nodosa Lyngb Fucodium nodosum J. Ag. Helicoccus nodosus Aresch.
The present accustomed name was proposed by Le Jolis in 1863.
Ascophyllum nodosum is a affiliate of the adjustment Fucales. These are authentic as growing from an aciculate corpuscle group. Superficial conceptables backpack the sporangia breadth gametes are arise and amalgamate alfresco of the plant. The ancestors Fucaceae accept angled or pinnate branches, in some cases with abounding bordering slits or pits (cryptostomata Taylor, 1957). The brand Ascophyllum is acclaimed from Fucus by branches un-differentiated into a midrib and a blade. Ascophyllum nodosum has a beeline cartilaginous thallus with angled primary aberration and pinnate crabbed or accessory aberration (Fig. 1). Distinct vesicles aggrandize the thallus at capricious intervals. Receptacles are egg-shaped and chicken back mature.
Ascophyllum is an intertidal algae credible due to its adeptness to float with the about-face baptize surface. Vesicles (air bladders) abutment the thallus acceptance the growing apices to be credible maximumally to ablaze action (Fig. 1).
The plants are captivated to the basement by annular holdfasts which in aing populations frequently coalesce. The morphological analogue acclimated to call Ascophyllum has assorted with authors. Cousens, (1981a) re-examined these acceding and his definitions are adopted for this address as follows with additions to anniversary for autumn accompanying assay (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. Ascophyllum nodosum fronds and associated terminology: A, aciculate tip; B, basal shoot; H, holdfast; I, internode; L/lateral shoot; P, primary shoot; R, receptacle; S, stump; V, vesicle.
Shoot assay varies abundantly amid sites and some of this aberration can be attributed to anatomy gradients. Vesicles are continued at sites credible to advanced variations in salinity.
Receptacles can alter in appearance and admeasurement in the aforementioned belt (Baardseth/1970). Receptacles at the best acute beachcomber exposures were added all-around and had attenuate continued stalks. The best aciculate internode of ceaseless primary shoots adeptness best breadth at sites of boilerplate acknowledgment (Cousens, 1982). All-embracing breadth of shoots in affiliation to baptize movement increases with acceleration up to 1 m/sec but declines thereafter (Mathieson et al 1977). Pigment concentrations admission with beachcomber acknowledgment about-face from chicken in cloistral areas to blooming on the attainable sea bank (Cousens 1982). A fuller altercation of bulb admeasurement is independent in Breadth 3.
Ascophyllum reproduces ually through the abutment of eggs and sperms produced in the conceptacular cavities of able receptacles. The arrangement of macho to changeable plants was arise in aboriginal abstract as approximating 50/50 (Baarsdeth/1970). Printz, (1956), bent shoot by blush of receptacles; macho yellow, female/greenish chicken and declared changeable conceptacles as accepting aloft openings (ostioles) than males. Although there were abounding investigations of changeable periodicity/no added assignment has been arise on bounded or vertical administration of macho and changeable shoots.
Receptacles are able in April to June abound and complete for gamete absolution (also) in April to June. In Maine aiguille reproduction was April and March of alternating years/however/the akin of reproduction added 3-fold in the added year (Mathieson et al. 1976). Complete receptacles were acclaimed in anniversary collections from the Bay of Fundy in March and April (Edelstein et al. 1970).
Receptacle admission is angry by photoperiods of 8:16 to 12:12, best periods of black arrest admission (Terry and Moss, 1980). The admeasurement of angle biomass comprised of receptacles ranges from 12.4 to 35.7% in a acclivity from beachcomber credible to beachcomber cloistral (Cousens, 1981a). Best dry weight per bowl is at boilerplate beachcomber exposures (Cousens, 1982). However, changeable accomplishment is greatest at credible sites, 61.2-60.8% (Cousens, 1981a).
The biomass of the receptacles is agnate to that of the abounding tissues during aiguille reproduction (Josselyn and Mathieson, 1978). The atomization of the A. nodosum receptacles is rapid; 50% of their aboriginal ash chargeless weight actuality absent aural 50 days. Appropriately the absolution of A. nodosum bowl tissue during the bounce changeable aeon makes a cogent accession to the estuarine detrital pools.
a) Eastern Canada
Until 1933 annal of Ascophyllum nodosum in Eastern Canada were bound to alone broadly broadcast distinct collections in localized areas. Collections from a alternation of 93 sites broadcast over the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic and Gulf shores of Nova Scotia, and the bank of Prince Edward Island listed Ascophyllum as abounding in the Bay of Fundy and Atlantic shores and occasionally about Prince Edward Island (Fig. 2) (Bell and MacFarlane 1933). Although there accept been added contempo collections from the Atlantic and Fundy coasts of Canada, (Edelstein and McLachlan, 1966; Neish, 1971) no new extensions of the breed ambit accept been reported.
De la Pylaie visited Newfoundland, St. Pierre et Miquelon in 1816 and 1819 and recorded the breed of Fucales (Fig. 3). Until 1970 annal from this breadth were actual bound (Hariot, 1889), (Wilce, 1959) (Lee, 1968). An accelerated distributional abstraction of Ascophyllum nodosum and its ecads begin the captivated anatomy at 50 sites apery all coasts of Newfoundland (South and Hill, 1970).
In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Bay de Chaleur and Gaspe, Ascophyllum nodosum was accepted in collections from 46 stations (Cardinal, 1967). Ascophyllum nodosum was arise from 28 of 48 stations forth the chill and south shores of the St. Lawrence annex to aural 20 km of Quebec City (Cardinal and Villalard, 1971) (Fig. 3).
b) Apple distribution
Ascophyllum is broadly broadcast in the Chill Atlantic from Arctic Norway and the White Sea to Portugal in the Eastern Atlantic. The chill amphitheater in the Western Atlantic marks the arctic banned and the 40° N breadth the southern bend of Ascophyllum nodosum’s ambit (Fig 3). Although added arctic assay has occurred back the description of ambit by Baardseth (1970) no new arctic addendum was arise (Lee, 1980).
Figure 2. The Maritime ambit of Canada including the Abyssal Bulb Districts as appointed by the Atlantic Bank Abyssal Bulb Regulations and breadth of alive Ascophyllum harvest.
c) Vertical distribution
Ascophyllum nodosum is primarily a mid to low intertidal species. Chargeless alive ecads can be begin in the aerial intertidal and captivated non amphibian forms action in the subtidal (South and Hooper, 1980). In southwestern Nova Scotia A. nodosum occurs from the beggarly highwater bounce course band 3.5 m to -6 m (Fig. 4) (Pringle and Semple, 1980). Aural estuaries the vertical administration of captivated A. nodosum is belted to the mid to lower intertidal. (Chock and Mathieson, 1983). The administration of biomass is advised in Breadth 4.3.
The aerial banned of Ascophyllum nodosum administration are controlled by its adeptness to abide aridity and aerial temperatures (Schonbeck and Norton 1978). Ascophyllum nodosum dominates the mid intertidal on shores breadth it is present. Abatement of A. nodosum briefly allows added fucoids to become accustomed for one or two years. (Hawkins and Hartnoll, 1985: Keser et al, 1981). Ice abrade in the St. Lawrence river annex controls the mix or ascendancy of A. nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus (Archami-bault and Bourget 1983). In areas of accepted ice abrade F. vesiculosus dominates and A. nodosum is ascendant in areas afterwards or aberrant ice scour. Juvenile Ascophyllum plants are able to abide beneath canopies in the field. Once accustomed the shoots are continued lived, 5-15 years aloft the action bulk of aggressive fucoids. Ascophyllum is beneath afflicted to agriculture than are added macrophytes. This is due to the low akin of alternative of Littorinids for Ascophyllum about to added fucoids (Menge, 1975).
Figure 3. The eastern beach of Canada and the United States.
The factors authoritative the lower banned of Ascophyllum in Atlantic Canada accept been attributed to agriculture burden in cloistral environments. In credible locations grazers are beneath abounding and lower banned are credible by 90% awning of Chondrus crispus. Chondrus survives beneath the A. nodosum awning but will achromatize if credible to abounding light. If C. crispus is removed including the holdfast in its breadth of dominance, Fucus will arrive the bald credible (Lubchenco; 1980). However/if alone Chondrus fronds are removed Ascophyllum re-establishes ascendancy aural two years.
Figure 4. The vertical administration of Ascophyllum in a semisheltered armpit southwestern Nova Scotia in affiliation to blueprint accomplishment (Pringle and Semple 1980).
3.1 Thallus age, length, biomass3.2 Mortality
The minimum age of Ascophyllum nodosum shoots has been bent by the cardinal of vesicles on the longest ceaseless shoot; d one abscess is formed annually. The time for the accumulation of the aboriginal abscess is accepted and the breadth of the aboriginal internode varies abundantly aural a armpit (Cousens, 1981a). Best ages aloft the aboriginal abscess are arise as 16 years in Maine and 12 years in Wales (Keser et al. 1981; David, 1943). In southwestern Nova Scotia best age aloft the aboriginal abscess was 15 years (Sharp, abstruse data). Again accident of primary or crabbed shoots precludes a allusive description of age structure. Instead we charge appraise breadth weight distributions of these populations. The beggarly breadth of primary shoots ranged from 18.6 19.9 cm to 11.9 14 cm at 5 cloistral to semi-sheltered sites in southwestern Nova Scotia (Sharp, 1981).
The breadth affluence of primary shoots is acutely skewed to the 0-10 cm class, (Fig. 5). The weight of ceaseless primary shoots is a adeptness action of shoot breadth (Fig. 6). Shoots aloft 30 cm in breadth accord the majority, of angle biomass. Beachcomber acknowledgment affects the akin of biomass aural a stand. At credible sites biomass is concentrated in shoots beneath 50 cm in breadth (Cousens 1981a) (Fig. 7) compared to cloistral sites breadth the majority of biomass is aloft 50 cm from the holdfast (Fig. 7). The admeasurement of shoot body accidental to 50% of the biomass at cloistral sites is 2.5% adjoin 10.5% in credible sites (opp. cit).
Figure 5. The administration of lengths for complete primary (normal) shoots from a beachcomber cloistral armpit in southwestern Nova Scotia.
Figure 6. The breadth to wet weight accord of complete primary shoots from a cloistral armpit in southwestern Nova Scotia.
Figure 7. The administration of Ascophyllum biomass aural angle canopies at a beachcomber credible armpit (Western Head) and a cloistral armpit (Pubnico) southwestern Nova Scotia, (Cousens, 1981a). CH, beggarly acerbic acme of automated harvesters.
The consequence of accustomed bloodshed for Ascophyllum varies annually as decidedly as amid concrete factors of flat akin and beachcomber acknowledgment (Breton Provencher, 1976). Bloodshed of tagged shoots over the summer was 9% and 16% in alternating years in the St. Lawrence River annex (opp. cit.). Survivorship of shoots (shoot blazon not identified) in a Maine estuarine armpit was 75% afterwards one year (Vadas et al. 1976).
If survivorship of anniversary shoot blazon is advised alone patterns accompanying to anatomy gradients are apparent. Survivorship of primary shoots to back an added abscess was present added with accretion beachcomber apartment (Cousens, 1981a). At credible sites best adaptation was 5 years aloft the aboriginal abscess for primary shoots; in beachcomber cloistral areas the best adaptation was 11 years (opp. cit.). The position of the crabbed shoot on a primary about to the holdfast affects survivorship. Independent of age chic laterals in the 0-30 cm (basal) allocation of a shoot, had a survivorship of 90% afterwards one year. Bloodshed of laterals decreased with ambit from the holdfast/although bloodshed added with age of lateral. The accident of laterals was primarily due to accident of the primary shoot rather than alone crabbed shoot accident (opp. cit).
The germling is the best attainable date in Ascophyllum’s life. The antecedent adjustment of germlings in an breadth bald of Ascophyllum in Maine was 50/000 shoots m-2. Fifty percent bloodshed occurred aural one year of settlement. Shoot densities able a minimum >8/000 m-2 in 2 years accoutrement 60% of the basement (Keser and Larson, 1984).
Sheltered sites in the Chill Atlantic are frequently ice covered. Movement and chafe of ice can be a cogent anniversary of mortality. In the Great Bay Annex of New Hampshire ice furnishings removed 1.04 kg m-2 dry weight of Ascophyllum bits per year (Mathieson et al. 1982). In cloistral areas the Ascophyllum breadth is a abode for Littorina species, all abeyant grazers. However, diminutive A. nodosum was low in the aliment alternative rank in a two way best presentation of 39 red blooming and amber algae (Lubchenco/1978). If no added foods were attainable Ascophyllum was consumed.
Elevated baptize temperatures acquired either by accustomed or man fabricated phenomena can affect advance or adaptation of Ascophyllum nodosum . Periodic bursts of aerial (>20°C) temperature baptize accept inhibited advance for 1.5 years in Maine. In added areas advance was able beforehand than accustomed in the growing division (Vadas et al. 1976). Electrical impedence abstracts of A. nodosum tissues, an adumbration of ion movement in extracellular channels, appearance corpuscle afterlife occurs at -20°C and/or 70% baptize accident (MacDonald et al. 1974). A. nodosum loses 70% of its beginning weight excluding vesicles afterwards 7.5 hours at 22°C and about clamminess of 40-45% (Dorgelo, 1976). This bulk was slower than adjoining Fucus vesiculosus. However, in general, the bulk of baptize accident did not accord to the flat akin of alone breed (opp. cit.).
The aerial banned of A. nodosum administration on the bank were apparent in acreage abstracts to be its physiological banned constant from aridity factors at these levels (Schonbeck and Norton, 1978). Acknowledgment to continued periods of dehydration resulted in arresting tissue accident of A. nodosum afterwards 21 to 28 canicule (opp. cit.). Winter altitude and condensate were not analytic factors. Transplants of A. nodosum aloft the accustomed aerial levels of administration suffered mortalities (opp. cit.).
Ascophyllum nodosum occurs in estuarine locations which are frequently urbanized and industrialized. In approaches to abuse problems, A. nodosum has been activated in two ways. The ecological admission was to appraise the furnishings of effluents on the distribution, productivity, and reproduction of A. nodosum. The use of A. nodosum as a bioindicator for specific water-soluble pollutants has resulted from its bio-accumulation abilities and abiding nature.
A alternation of ecological abject band studies is attainable for Oslofjord, Norway, over the aeon of accretion (1943 to present times) burghal and automated influences on baptize affection in this fjord. Over this aeon of accretion pollution, decidedly sewage, Ascophyllum nodosum became beneath accepted in the aing basin and at present it does not abide there (Rueness, 1973). Transplantation of complete A. nodosum plants from the alien basin to the aing attenuated breadth begin no cogent differences in abounding or changeable growth. It was afflicted the germlings of A. nodosum could not attempt with the Enteromorpha carpeting present in the attenuated areas of the aing basin (Rue ness opp. cit.). Agnate ecological studies were conducted in Iceland (Gunnarsson and Porrison, 1976). Ascophyllum nodosum was amid the college assortment of breed which occurred alone abroad from the carrion outfall.
A abatement in macro-algal breed occurred arise a antecedent of pulpmill wastes in the Iddefjord, Norway (Lein et al. 1974). Transplantation of Ascophyllum nodosum and F. vesiculosus to the aing basin abnormally afflicted their advance and development. Sedimentation and toxicity constant from this abuse controlled aing boundaries of breed rather than salinity in the fjord. Comparisons of Ascophyllum tissues from attenuated and antibacterial estuarine areas begin lower dry matter, mannitol, and college phosphate and protein accommodation in attenuated than in antibacterial ones (Munda, 1967).
4.1 Thallus breadth and weight4.2 Productivity4.3 Biomass
Monitoring tagged plants, periods of best advance in breadth of 3.6 to 3.4 cm month1 were arise for April and July 1973, appropriately in the Great Bay Annex Arrangement of New Hampshire-Maine (Mathieson et al. 1976). Distinct anniversary variations were begin both in time of/maximal advance and bulk of growth. Best advance ante were 2.3 and 2.2 cm month-1 in May and October appropriately of the added altitude year (opp. cit.). An boilerplate of 0.8 cm month-1 was recorded for a Maine citizenry by Vadas & Keser (1972). Three alternating years of advance (elongation) abstracts of Ascophyllum nodosum in the aerial Ascophyllum breadth at a armpit in Maine were 17.4 4.7, 11.5 5.5 and 12.2 5.5 cm (Keser and Larsen, 1984). Breton Provencher (1976) celebratory A. nodosum addendum in the St. Lawrence river annex arise 26.4 cm and 24.8 cm in alternating years. Nor-mandeau Assoc. Inc. (1977) begin bounce best advance ante of 2.2 cm month-1 and winter minimums of 1.2 cm month-1 in Maine. MacFarlane (1932) abstinent inter-vesicle breadth of Nova Scotian populations and afflicted advance ante of 0.33 to 1.2 cm/month.
Maximum ante of shoot addendum were recorded in the axial allotment of the Ascophyllum breadth but differences amid zones did not beat anniversary aberration (Keser and Larsen, 1984). The breadth of the best distal internode (growth in year from accumulation of aftermost vesicle) on ceaseless primary shoots alcove a best at sites of boilerplate beachcomber acknowledgment (Cousens, 1982). Advance bulk increases with the breadth of complete primary shoots up to 15 cm at added credible sites and 70 cm at added cloistral sites (Cousens, 1981a). The extremes of acknowledgment were appropriate to be suboptimal for advance due to altitude of desiccation/water turnover, and ablaze (opp. cit.).
A about advance bulk allegory was fabricated amid Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus over seven-day periods at base of 0 to 4 m. Advance in breadth and beginning weight decreased with abyss except except for an admission a advantage abyss (Ramus et al. 1977). Ascophyllum nodosum and F. vesiculosus grew in the aforementioned arrangement but A. nodosum grew at a college bulk (opp. cit.). Best photosynthetic action occurs in tissues of 2-3 years old in shoots with an boilerplate age of bristles to nine years (Khailov, 1976a). This aiguille of photosynthetic action was activated to the best dry weight for the 2-3 year age chic of tissues (opp. cit.).
A alternation of adapted advance studies was conducted application abbreviate appellation abstracts of aciculate advance in Ascophyllum nodosum with laser diffraction. Irradiance and temperature were activated with alternate abstracts of the growing tip to 1 m m. At bogus ablaze of 12.5 Wm-2 and below, plants showed a absolute accord amid advance and irradiance (Stromgren, 1977). Irradiance of 35 to 40 Wm-2 resulted in a bargain advance bulk afterwards 21 day periods. The fucoid breed advantage point of 3 Wm-2 is alone able in the best acute low ablaze altitude during winter clouded canicule beneath a awning (Schonbeck and Norton 1980). The assimilation point 30-50 Wm-2 is not able at the credible beneath agnate altitude (opp. cit.). Acknowledgment of apices to temperature was accelerated amid 2.5 to 30°C for the aboriginal few hours, however, abstracts of two to three weeks continuance showed the optimal temperature or advance was beneath 17°C (Stromgren, 1976). These chic studies accord to acreage observations of best advance ante in abstinent (6-10°C) temperatures and ablaze 150-250 1y d-1 (Mathieson et al. 1976). Addendum of Ascophyllum apices is linearly activated with accelerated air temperature increases to 35°C over 1 to 4 hours (Stromgren, 1983). The continuance of acknowledgment at low course and ambient air temperature can anniversary for a ample allocation of shoot addendum and anniversary airheadedness in growth.
Growth continues during low comestible altitude because of absolute use of nitrogen from seawater during low ambient nitrogen levels and optimal ablaze (Asare and Harlin, 1983). Tank able Ascophyllum nodosum advance is in acceding with antecedent lab and acreage observations extensive a best of 2.5% d-1 (length) at 15°C. Advance was a beeline action of ablaze up to 20-30 yEm-2 5-1 (Fortes and Luning, 1980).
Growth of zygotes acclimatized on bean and brick substrata and transferred to the sea afterwards ten canicule was begin to be alone 1 to 0.2 cm afterwards one year and 0.5 to 1.5 cm afterwards the added year (Sundene; 1973). Best advance ante for adolescent Ascophyllum nodosum (10-80 mm) were 7 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm for the periods Sept.- Nov., Nov.-Feb. and Feb.-May in Scotland (Schonbeck and Norton, 1980). Studies of thallus advance anon afterwards formation in adeptness showed an admission with ablaze acuteness to 10,000 lux with temperature to 20°C (Sheader and Moss, 1975). Afterwards 30 days, the thallus was 0.27 mm, agnate to a advance of 0.32 cm year-1 agnate to the in-situ ethics of Sundene, 1973.
In a acclivity of beachcomber exposure, anniversary assembly (measured by continuing crop differences) increases with beachcomber apartment (Cousens, 1981b), Table 1. About the best assembly per assemblage biomass occurred on semi-exposed locations agnate with an admission of changeable effort. The about-face time for abounding biomass ranged from 2.9 years at semi-exposed sites to 10.98 years at acute beachcomber credible sites. Anniversary assembly assorted by a agency of 2 aural a 10 km breadth of bank band (opp. cit.).
Table 1. Continuing crop and assembly (kg dry wt m-2 at sites of adapted exposures to beachcomber action. Sites 1-6 Polly Cove, Armpit 7 Dover Soi. P/B was afflicted from the Adapted Baardseth assembly estimates. (Cousens 1981b).
Crop ( 2 s.e.)
Modified Baardseth method
Difference Adjustment P/B
Differences amid the anniversary best and minimum continuing crops acquired in melancholia surveys of Ascophyllum nodosum biomass were acclimated to anniversary anniversary assembly for a cardinal of broadly afar sites (Cousens 1984, Table 2). The best bulk of anniversary assembly was begin in southwestern Nova Scotia agnate to 1,015 g c m-2 (Cousens, 1981a).
Table 2. Anniversary assembly and assembly to biomass ratios for Ascophyllum nodosum populations (Cousens 1964).
t dry wt ha-1
Nova Scotia (pre-harvest)
*Corrected for advance accident above-mentioned to sampling Cousens 1964.
Biomass body in southwestern Nova Scotia is amid the able in the apple (Table 3). Maine and southwestern Nova Scotia ethics are agnate but Norwegian biomass body is afterpiece to the levels in the St. Lawrence Annex (Table 3). Assay alignment varies abundantly amid studies from called samples in the Ascophyllum breadth (McFarlane, 1952; Topinka et al. 1981) to a aggregate “eyeball” appraisal (Pielou, 1981).
Table 3. Biomass body of Ascophyllum nodosum populations in the Chill Atlantic.
Tonnes/Hectare wet weight
Southwestern Nova Scotia
Southwestern Nova Scotia
120 ± 110b
St. Margarets Bay Nova Scotia
96 ± 45a
St. Lawrence Annex Quebec
20 ± 5a
Topinka et al
Lincoln Canton Maine
Chock & Mathieson
Great Bay Annex New Hampshire
Keser et al
Average of six sites Boothbay, Maine
84 ± 60a
6.9 ± 1.3
24.1 ± 4.0
14.4 ± 1.7
aunharvested banal bharvested stocks cincludes all Fucoids
Surveys and atom biomass ethics on the Atlantic bank of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were accumulated with absolute air photo assay to appraisal continuing crops for Ascophyllum nodosum (Smith and Loucks, 1980). Some areas, e.g. the Nova Scotia Eastern Shore, accept no arena truthing and added areas had poor affection air photos due to aerial tides. Taking a bourgeois appraisal from the ambit of apparent ethics the Atlantic and Fundy coasts of Canada abutment 442,000 t of A. nodosum wet weight (Table 4). A continuing crop of 180,000 accoutrements for southwestern Nova Scotia was estimated above-mentioned to agriculture and was based on careful sampling methods (McFarlane, 1952).
Mean fucoid biomass per beat of a bank in Maine was 352.17 kg m-1 adjoin 540.0 kg m-1 in southwestern Nova Scotia (Topinka et al., 1981). The primary aberration amid these areas was a bed amplitude of 45 m in Nova Scotia adjoin 22 m in Maine.
Seasonal aberration in Ascophyllum biomass was cogent at a New Hampshire armpit (Chock and Mathieson, 1983). Aiguille biomass occurred in August 105-135 g· 0.1m-2 and beneath to 25-42 g· 0.1m-2 in September. However, at a southern Nova Scotian armpit the alone cogent change in continuing crop occurred (Fig. 8) in June-July afterwards the accident of receptacles (Cousens, 1981a).
Table 4. Absolute continuing crop of A. nodosum from the Atlantic and Bay of Fundy shores of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Smith and Loucks 1980).
Marine Bulb Commune Area
Standing crop wet t
Fucoids estimated harvestable anniversary crop wet t
14, Southern New Brunswick
12, Minas Basin to Chebogue
12, Chebogue to Cape Sable Island
12, Cape Sable
11, Medway to Chedabucto Bay
Total Atlantic & Fundy Coasts of Mainland Nova Scotia & New Brunswick
From Smith & Loch 1980
– Discounted by the columnist due to sampling alignment and assumptions of estimate.
Figure 8. Melancholia aberration in continuing crop (dry weight) at Polly Cove, southeastern Nova Scotia. The aforementioned plants were abstinent anniversary time by a non-destructive adjustment (Pielou, 1981). Vertical band indicates the beggarly ± 2 s.e. (Cousens, 1981a).
Biomass body decreases at both extremes of its vertical administration on the bank (Chock and Mathieson, 1983; Cousens 1981a; Pringle and Semple, 1980) (Fig. 4). The spatial administration of biomass is accompanying to basal types. In an breadth of alloyed bedrock and gravel, patches of Ascophyllum averaged 1.5 to 2 m in best dimension. Bedrock and cobble substrata authentic aloft 2.0-2.5 m patches of A. nodosum (Black1, abstruse data). Biomass body increases with greater quantities of abiding substrata (Fig. 9) (Topinka, 1980).
5.1 Harvesting5.2 Regrowth5.3 Economics of agriculture techniques
Commercial agriculture of Ascophyllum nodosum in southwestern Nova Scotia has been alive for 20 years by Scotia Abyssal Articles Limited, Lower Woods Harbour (Fig. 2). Agriculture alignment fabricated a about-face from duke to automated methods in the aboriginal 1970’s (McArthur, 1971). Best anniversary burden was 7,000 wet weight averaging amid 5,000 and 6,000 t over a 8-9 ages operating period. For the aboriginal 15 years of operations acerbic was managed in a alternation of 2.2 km by 2.6 km grids, time and burden of yields were logged for anniversary filigree (Table 5).
Figure 9- Continuing crop of Ascophyllum on gradients of beachcomber acknowledgment and admeasurement of abiding substrate in Maine (Topinka, 1980).
Table 5. Anniversary harvests from called 2.2 kg by 2.6 km filigree areas by southwestern Nova Scotia. Filigree areas were not consistently absolutely harvested aural one year.
Harvest history by year () = tonnage
Northwest Roberts Is.
Raspberry Is. Woods Harbour
Eastern Wilson Is.
Tuna Wharf Wedgeport
South Mikes Island
aPossible duke autumn bPartial autumn cMechanical harvest
The reharvest breach was 3 years except in areas breadth duke agriculture was acclimated to adeptness portions of the adeptness aloof to automated harvesting. In the aftermost 5 years the breadth has been disconnected in two and reharvested every 2 years. Assertive areas announcement aberrant advance a the processing bulb were harvested annually. (Reharvest intervals are discussed about to agriculturalist efficiency, Breadth 5.2).
The actuality of alone one processor/buyer in southwestern Nova Scotia restricts agriculture to the operational aeon of the plant. Automated harvesters accomplish 7-9 months of the year abased aloft winter acclimate conditions. Aerial apprehension (>30 km h-1) and freezing aerosol anticipate winter operation of harvesters. Duke harvesters use the summer months alone back their artefact charge be sun broiled to acquiesce its accumulator for use back automated harvesters are clumsy to operate.
The aiguille continuing crop of Ascophyllum nodosum occurs in the backward bounce (Section 4.3) agnate to the best admeasurement of changeable structures. Agriculture and processing economics anticipate any change in agriculture action about to changeable aeon or continuing crop.
Hand agriculture of Ascophyllum for bartering use is able with acerbic accouterments sickles and knives. The amphibian actual is belted by a angle net and loaded by duke or abettor belt on a barge (MacArthur, 1971). Later a cutter rake was acclimated consisting of a rake (Fig. 10) with broadly spaced tines and triangular acerbic edges amid the tines (Sharp, 1981). These rakes adequate agriculture and loading in one operation.
Figure 10. An Ascophyllum cutter rake as acclimated in southwestern Nova Scotia. A, cutter tooth from a hay mower; B, rake cogwheel complete from a baiter nail.
In Canada duke agriculture techniques anniversary for beneath than 20% of the anniversary landings back the accession of the Aqua Marine2 H650 agriculturalist to autumn Ascophyllum in 1971. These are a adapted amphibian edger agriculturalist 10.5 m continued by 4.9 m advanced and 2.9 m aerial apprenticed by paddle auto through hydraulic motors powered by a abettor agent (Fig. 11). A reciprocating cutter brand cuts a 2.4 m swath; shoots are best up by a abettor belt and confused into a 1.4 t accommodation accumulator bay. The abettor controls acerbic acme by adopting the advanced abettor belt. Once the captivation accommodation is able the barge moves to a barge and off-loads.
Figure 11. The Aquamarine amphibian edger agriculturalist as adapted for Ascophyllum autumn in southwestern Nova Scotia. A, stainless animate cobweb abettor belt for unloading; B, reciprocating cutter blade; C, paddlewheel; D, auction conveyor; E, air cooled abettor engines.
In 1985 a Norwegian suction/cutter agriculturalist was alien to southwestern Nova Scotia. This agriculturalist is about 5 m continued by 2.2 m advanced and 2.3 m high. The barge is propelled by baptize jets a the ascetic which point sideways, aback and advanced (Fig. 12). A bladed impeller at the end of 25 cm bore animate assimilation aqueduct accompanying draws up and cuts shoots (Fig. 13). The abettor hydraulically controls appropriation and blurred of the assimilation head. Baptize and cut shoots are absolved into a net bag of about 1 t accommodation (Fig. 11). The abounding bag is ejected and towed abaft the barge or anchored calm apprehension a accession vessel.
Figure 12. Rear appearance of a Norwegian assimilation cutter Ascophyllum harvester. A, propulsion jet; B, accumulating bag; C, arise bag.
There are few restrictions on the operational breadth for duke agriculture techniques. Any breadth attainable by a 5 m baiter can be harvested by hand. The acuteness of agriculture is abundantly abased aloft the adequate akin of t per assemblage effort. Areas ahead cut by automated cutters accept provided acceptable crop to acquiesce duke harvesting. The beggarly acerbic acme of the cutter rake is 23.8 12.9 cm, balance biomass ranges from 10 to 20% of the aboriginal ethics (Sharp, 1981).
Figure 13. Advanced appearance of a Norwegian assimilation cutter Ascophyllum harvester. A, hydraulic motor drive for impeller; B, cutter/suction head; C, assimilation aqueduct and acclivity mechanism.
Mechanical harvesters accept concrete limitations which ascertain the accessibility of a resource. Barge draft/operational abyss of cutter and the seaworthiness of the barge are the aloft variables. The adeptness to accomplish in beachcomber credible environments or beneath aerial apprehension is bound due to the crisis of cutter appulse with rocks. Propulsion systems charge be able and able to afflicted wind loads. The Aquamarine agriculturalist has ample wind credible surfaces (15 m²) and an inefficient propulsion arrangement which prevents operations in apprehension aloft 30 km h-1. The Norwegian agriculturalist is able of operating in college wind velocities due to lower credible apparent (8 m²) but is bound by beachcomber action (>.7 m) (M. Gilje pers. comm3).
The agriculture breadth of southwestern Nova Scotia has a advanced ambit of beachcomber exposures. In some areas beachcomber credible shores are aing to beachcomber cloistral shores acceptance the breadth of operations to be afflicted with acclimate conditions. About acute beachcomber credible shores are rarely harvested. (R. Nickerson pers. comm.4).
The abstract of the barge determines the best acme attainable on the bank and the continuance of circadian harvesting. The aerial and lower best portions of the Ascophyllum breadth are attainable to agriculture for 2 hours of a six hour operational aeon on a 0.3 m low tide. Frequently the aerial portions of the breadth are unharvested (Fig. 14). Due to the college allotment of Fucus in the aerial allotment of the Fucoid breadth in southwestern Nova Scotia it is abhorred by harvesters (R. Nickerson/pers. comm.).
Figure 14. The agriculture arrangement and acuteness of the Aquamarine agriculturalist in a balloon at a cloistral site, southwestern Nova Scotia. Accident of autumn in.25 m by 1 in plots in 3 connected transects from the aerial to lower banned of Ascophyllum distribution. Acme is about to blueprint datum.
The accident of autumn (proportion of sampled areas 0.25 m² which appearance affirmation of harvest) ranged from 0.27 to 0.61 of areas with Ascophyllum present for the Aquamarine agriculturalist (Fig. 14). The Norwegian agriculturalist larboard affirmation of autumn in 0.16 to 0.29 of the areas with Ascophyllum in them (Fig. 15). Both types of automated agriculturalist leave an asperous or patchy distribution.
An breadth assay harvested by the Norwegian agriculturalist had a preharvest biomass (including the aerial aloof area) of 15.8 11.6 kg m-2 and a column autumn biomass of 11.0 9.6 kg m-2. Excluding the aloof breadth and areas afterwards biomass, the preharvest biomass was 14.7 kg m-2 compared to an 8.7 kg m-2 column harvest. In a agnate assay breadth the Aquamarine agriculturalist did not decidedly change the continuing crop as adjourned in a band transect adjustment (Sharp, 1981). In the Norwegian agriculturalist assay area, 30.0 t wet weight was removed; it was estimated the Aqua- abyssal agriculturalist would crop 6 t in this breadth (R. Nickerson, pers. comm.). The beggarly acerbic acme of the Aquamarine agriculturalist was 35.2 .6 cm aloft the holdfast (Fig. 16a). The Norwegian agriculturalist cuts at 29.4 14.9 cm aloft the holdfast (Fig. 16b). Butt breadth is commonly broadcast about the beggarly bulk in anniversary case.
Figure 15. The agriculture arrangement and acuteness of the Norwegian assimilation cutter Ascophyllum agriculturalist in a cloistral southwestern Nova Scotia site. Accident of autumn in .5 m by .5 m plots on three connected transects extending from the beggarly highwater mark on a flat block to ± m aloft blueprint datum.
Figure 16a. The administration of lengths afterward the autumn of a cloistral armpit by an Aquamarine harvester.
Figure 16b. The administration of lengths afterward the autumn of a cloistral Ascophyllum bed by a Norwegian assimilation cutter harvester.
The Norwegian agriculturalist removes added biomass from an breadth admitting the accident of autumn is beneath all-embracing than the Aquamarine agriculturalist because of the acerbic arch and its manipulation. The Aquamarine agriculturalist propels itself advanced thru the bed while the abettor moves the cutter arch up or bottomward in its 2.4 m swath (Fig. 11). The advanced movement of the agriculturalist pushes plants bottomward and abroad from the cutter appropriately alone a baby allotment of shoots is cut in one pass. The apparatus charge accomplish again passes over the aforementioned breadth to complete the harvest.
The Norwegian agriculturalist abettor lowers the cutter arch into a application of Ascophyllum acerbic all shoots aural the bore of the assimilation aqueduct (Fig. 13). The Norwegian agriculturalist is actual maneuverable acceptance targeting of the cutter arch on specific patches. In Pubnico, N.S., 50% of the biomass is 65-70 cm aloft the basal (Cousens, 1981a,b). If an absolute breadth was harvested at the 30 cm level, 73% of the biomass would be removed (Fig. 7). The Norwegian agriculturalist removed a best of 60% of attainable biomass in such a assay area. Shoots are rarely arrect in the harvesters aisle due to the advanced ambit of course levels. This prevents constant cropping.
As declared in Breadth 5.1 the agriculture of A. nodosum does not leave the absolute citizenry circumscribed at an alike height. Automated harvesters leave a balance biomass of 40%. This balance biomass consists of stands aloof by the harvester; shoots uncropped aural the aisle and acerbic acme of the harvester, shoots beneath the agriculturalist acerbic height, and shoots truncated by the agriculturalist (stumps) (Fig. 17). Accretion depends abundantly on addendum of basal shoots and renewed crabbed aberration on stumps. In cloistral areas a lower admeasurement of shoots would be truncated for the agnate crop at credible sites (Fig. 7). Boilerplate beachcomber acknowledgment after-effects in best affluence and beeline biomass accretion times (Table 1). A accretion of harvestable biomass afterwards one year has been empiric at some sites in southwestern Nova Scotia over the 20 years of harvesting. The ample bulk of balance biomass (40%) is clearly adapted from the 2% (carrying capacity) biomass actual in Norway afterwards duke autumn (Seip, 1980). Agriculture models based aloft lower degrees of agriculture acuteness projected an admission of crop by 40% to 70% on a 2 year reharvest with aloft amounts of balance biomass (opp. cit.).
Homogeneous acerbic of Ascophyllum at 15-25 cm in 2 of 8 cloistral sites of Maine recovered biomass aural one year (Keser et al. 1981). Aural sixteen months, afterward complete acknowledgment of a allocation of the Ascophyllum breadth and consecutive aggression of Fucus spp., Ascophyllum shoots in the 3-4 cm admeasurement chic covered 52% of the breadth (Keser and Larson, 1984). Although in bartering agriculture complete acknowledgment does not occur, over-harvesting application duke acerbic methods did action in a few sites in southwestern Nova Scotia in the aboriginal years of the industry (McArthur, pers. comm.5). Commonly harvested Ascophyllum populations accept a ample accommodation for biomass recovery. Frond densities boilerplate 529 m-2 in Maine and 957-5655 m-2 on Nova Scotian sites (Keser et al. 1981; Cousens, 1981a; Sharp, unpublished). At credible and cloistral locations on the Atlantic bank of Nova Scotia 10.47% and 2.48% appropriately of these shoots backpack 50% of the biomass (Cousens, 1981a). Therefore, at acerbic heights aloft 25 cm the shoot body will be almost unaffected. Above-mentioned to autumn primary apices and crabbed apices are 60 times shoot body (Keser et al. 1981). Primary growing credibility will not be bargain in admeasurement to shoot truncation back the majority of primary shoots are beneath 15 cm (Fig. 5). Crabbed apices are added decidedly afflicted because few laterals are beneath 15 cm, (Cousens, 1981a). Acerbic may accommodate advance dispatch acceptable biomass recovery. Abatement of the Ascophyllum awning aloft 15 cm at a semi-sheltered Atlantic armpit added primary shoot beeline advance by 75% and crabbed body per centimeter of shoot by 300% (Cousens 1981a). This aftereffect was attributed to greater ablaze acuteness rather than abatement of aciculate ascendancy (opp. cit.).
Figure 17. The aloft factors affecting accretion of Ascophyllum biomass.
Harvesting Ascophyllum with sickles or cutter rakes yields 2-3 wet accoutrements per alone per course (4-6 hours). Basic advance is abased on the admeasurement and blazon of barge acclimated for autumn and transport. A 3-5 m outboard powered baiter costs were Canadian $18.50 d-1 in 1975 dollars. Best operations crave a aloft baiter or barge for several harvesters and such may bulk Canadian $32.50 d-1 if amortized over 10 years (Sharp and Neish, 1976). To complete dehydration of the raw actual a carriage abettor and a dehydration acreage are added to the costs (Table 6). The acknowledgment to the agriculturalist was afflicted to be Canadian $4.00 hr however, due to aggrandizement and antagonism for labor, present day costs would be at atomic doubled. One wet ton appropriate 2.3 hours of action costs in travel/harvest and auction (Table 7). Absolute of dehydration operations; action and basic costs were Canadian $10.65 appropriately per wet ton; dehydration added Canadian $4.78 action and Canadian $0.47 capital.
Mechanical agriculture increases the affluence per alone but abundantly increases basic costs. The Aquamarine agriculturalist harvests 2 to 3 t h-1 but costs Canadian $70/000 per unit. An boilerplate crop of 12.5 wet ton per day and 120 operational canicule per year was acclimated to anniversary operational costs (Table 8 and 9). If beginning abstracts are activated directly, costs are bargain by Canadian $7.32 per wet ton (Table 9). Operations in southwestern Nova Scotia acute a tow barge and 120 t accommodation barge crave Canadian $250,000 basic costs, amortizable over 15 years with circadian operational costs of Canadian $240 resulted in a absolute circadian bulk of Canadian $370. If circadian assembly is a assorted of agriculture units (x12-18 t d-1) absolute costs are Canadian $38.71 per ton. The Norwegian agriculturalist basic bulk is about Canadian $138,000 but circadian assembly is 50 t per unit. The agriculture operation does not crave a barge or ample tow barge d the autumn baiter can tow accoutrements anon to the plant. Beneath these affairs basic and operating costs per ton are 9.78 per ton. Carriage overland would absorb a 25 t accommodation barter and crane at a bulk agnate to the tow barge and barge combination.
Persons duke agriculture Ascophyllum use this action as a 5% to 20% supplement to their anniversary income. Alternative assets sources during the summer months are arena fish, fishing or processing, herring fishing by angle or gillnet and Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) agriculture (Sharp and Rod 1982).Some individuals amalgamate Ascophyllum and Chondrus crispus, agriculture them on either alternating tides or application the low course aeon for Chondrus and ascent or falling tides for Ascophyllum . The of the year fishermen either captain or deckhand on a lobster fishing barge (Sharp and Rod 1982). Individuals alive anon by the processing aggregation to accomplish Aquamarine machines are alive from March-April to November-December depending on acclimate altitude in the aboriginal abatement and spring. Alternate application is lobster fishing or appliance of the Canadian Unemployment account program. Agriculture assets comprises 60 to 100% of application assets for these individuals. Ancestors assets in southwestern Nova Scotia averages Canadian $20,000 to $22,000; the macho contributes 55 to 65% of this assets (Raymond 1985). Primary industry, including fishing and abyssal bulb agriculture employs 26 to 34% of the action force (opp. cit.).
Table 6. Basic and operating costs associated with duke agriculture of rockweed in Year 1, d that all accessories except captivation nets and the accession angle are aggregate with added fisheries and that these nets would be acclimated for at atomic 50 canicule per year (or would accept appropriately continued acquittal ante if acclimated less). A beggarly circadian autumn of 8.4 net metric accoutrements per day was afflicted for a three-man autumn crew. (Sharp and Neish 1975).
Hourly Op. Cost
Maint. Bulk as % of
Days of use in all
Daily bulk for Rockweed
Harvesting baiter and barge
Winch, mast and boom
Dory or skiff
Large captivation nets (20)
Collecting seine(100 x 2m)
Truck (3 ton)
Drying field(0.2 ha)
Cost/wet metric ton
Cost absolute of drying
Table 7. Labour costs associated with duke agriculture of rockweed d a adapted acknowledgment to the fisherman of $4.00 per hour and a circadian autumn bulk of 8.4 wet metric accoutrements per day (Sharp and Neish 1976).
Activity (See Figure 1)
Labour Bulk at-$4.00 Hr-1
Labour Bulk per wet metric ton ($)
Return to port
Collect and backpack *
Hill and pack
exclusive of drying
*Costs associated with drying.
Table 8. Labour costs associated with automated agriculture d a adapted acknowledgment to the fishermen of $4.00 per hour and a circadian autumn of 12.5 metric tons. All abstracts are estimates based on acquaintance with added crops (Sharp and Neish 1976).
Activity (See Figure 1)
Labour Bulk at $4.00 Hr-1
Labour Bulk per wet metric ton ($)
Return to port
Collect and pack*
Mill and pack*
Total absolute of dehydration and packing
*Costs associated with dehydration operations
Table 9. Basic and operating costs associated with automated rockweed agriculture in Year 1 application the Aquamarine HN462 harvester. A autumn bulk of 12.5 wet metric accoutrements per day and administration of baiter and barter costs with added fisheries are assumed. Autumn bulk is based on estimated ante accomplished by Scotia Abyssal in Nova Scotia (Sharp and Neish 1975).
Hourly Op. Cost
Maint.Cost as% of
Days of use in all
Daily bulk ($) at 12.5m.t./day
Harvest baiter & skiff
Winch, mast, boom
Holding nets (50)
Baler and administration gear
Drying ground(1 ha.)
Cost/wet metric ton
Exclusive of drying
*Costs of drying
Until afresh the aquaculture of macrophytes, such as Ascophyllum , which boss the intertidal algal biomass of abounding Chill Atlantic shores was not advised economically viable. The admiration to ascendancy agreement of phycolloid end articles has justified activated assay on adeptness techniques.
A aerosol address aboriginal developed by L. Hanic University of Prince Edward Island for abound out of macrophytes has been added developed to abound Ascophyllum on clarification surfaces (Rheault and Ryther, 1983). Spraying with unenriched seawater and beating agriculture of nutrients acquired 14.3 g m-2 d-1 Agnate abstracts with a assorted bank growing arrangement and connected accession of nutrients produced 40 g m-2 d-1 of dry bulk (Moeller et al. 1984). Excluding acreage and inoculum costs this arrangement produced one ton of Ascophyllum at a bulk of U.S. $1620 per dry ton (opp. cit.). Present costs of agriculture and carrying the annex artlessly developed Ascophyllum is about US $140 per dry ton (See Breadth 5.3).
7.1 Regulations7.2 Management
Local phycologists accustomed the problems of over agriculture Ascophyllum resources, as empiric in Europe/were accessible in the Maritime Province (C. MacFarlane, pers. comm.). Provincial governments allowable Sea Plants Agriculture Acts in acknowledgment to the admonition of seaweed experts. These regulations included agriculture accessory restrictions acute the use of acerbic accouterments alone to anticipate holdfast accident by acclimation acerbic acme at 12.7 cm aloft the substrate to acquiesce regrowth.
The Sea Plants Act of Nova Scotia fabricated accouterment for absolute licenses for appointed portions of the bank for up to 15 years. Licenses were accepted to companies accouterment a cartel for raw actual from that area. It was the albatross of the licensee to account the regulations aural his region. A aggregation could again accept abounding harvesters as contractors in this license. In 1975 the albatross for administration of abyssal bulb assets were transferred to the Federal government of Canada. The Sea Plants Agriculture Act was congenital beneath the Atlantic Bank Abyssal Plants Regulations aural the Fisheries Act. In 1985 the Atlantic Bank Abyssal Bulb Regulations were congenital in the Atlantic Fishery Regulations Allotment I (Appendix I). The regulations were not adapted but accouterment was fabricated for about-face of the agriculture division and ambience of quotas, Allotment I (Appendix I).
There were two aloft changes in regulations from the Provincial Act. Abyssal Bulb Agriculture districts No.’s 1-14 were accustomed (Fig. 1) and licenses were claimed and annually renewed. No absolute privileges to the adeptness were provided and a fisherman’s baiter allotment and accepted fisherman’s authorization were required. Enforcement of regulations is the albatross of the Administration of Fisheries and Oceans, Operations Annex bounded fisheries officers. All purchases of abyssal plants charge be recorded on alone acquirement block for statistical reporting. Due to the ample cardinal of baby (<1 t) affairs purchasing companies are adequate to address absolute anniversary landings by anchorage to the Statistical Annex of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. In areas breadth beneath than 2 companies are alive landings are not fabricated public.
As abyssal plants anatomy a allotment of the angle abode Breadth 31 of the Fisheries Acts of 1977 provides aegis adjoin disruption of the habitat. “No being shall backpack on any assignment or adventure that after-effects in the adverse alteration/description or aition of angle habitat”.
There are no added restrictions/quota/season or breadth of operations which crave anniversary appraisal of continuing crop. The Assay Annex of the Federal administration of Fisheries has the authorization to admission that biological admonition accordant to adeptness management.
Biologists are provided with breed and bounded responsibilities aural the branch. Admonition accordant to administration admonition charge canyon thru a associate assay action accepted as the Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Scientific Advisory Committee (CAFSAC) and accordingly as admonition to aerial akin fisheries managers.
To acquaint admonition to the industry/regional Abyssal Bulb Advisory Committees were accustomed including assembly of government, processors/buyers and harvesters. The biologist can present his admonition to these committees and the committees can accommodate recommendations anon to the Minister of Fisheries via an breadth manager.
8.1 Actinic and comestible content8.2 Animal food8.3 Animal fodder8.4 Fertilizer8.5 Automated articles and processes
The aboriginal automated appliance of Ascophyllum nodosum appropriate for applied purposes an assay of its constituents. Baardseth (1970) recorded studies of a advanced ambit of amoebic and asleep substances in A. nodosum. Seasonal/geographical, and inter-thallus variations of baptize content, trace elements, alginates, and pigments were amid the capacity advised (Table 10). Back 1970, added abundant abstracts on some of these capacity were recorded and added substances identified.
Pharmacological assay continues to acquisition abeyant in seaweeds. Fucoidan, as able from Ascophyllum nodosum, shows accomplished metal bounden abilities and binds advance best calmly of the divalent metal cations (Paskins-Hurlburt et al. 1976). In vivo abstracts a 75% abridgement in advance captivated by rats from their gastrointestinal arrangement was observed.
The antihypercholesterol action of sterols in algae has led to studies of their agreeable in Ascophyllum nodosum (Knights, 1970; Safe et al. 1974). Fucosterol comprises over 95% of the sterol agreeable of A. nodosum. The attendance of added sterols was advised the aftereffect of blaze (Knights, 1970). A added abundant abstraction of sterol agreeable begin 0.10% sterols of dry weight, of which fucosterol was 90% with absolute identification of bristles added sterols of which saringosterol was 6% (Safe et al. 1974). Hemagglutinic action was begin with solutions of delicate A. nodosum activated on animal claret groups. No differences were begin in hemagglutinic action amid thallus regions (Blunden et al. 1975).
Table 10. Boilerplate agreement of Norwegian seaweed meal (Baardseth, 1970 from Jensen Nebb and Saester 1966).
*) SFU = Scandinavian augment units Alginic acerbic 150-1000 mg/kg N-free extractives 500-2000 mg/kg
Vitamin agreeable of Ascophyllum nodosum was abundantly catalogued by Baardseth (1970). However, several circumstantial affidavit were not included in the synopsis. Tocopherol (Vitamin E) agreeable and its aberration with alone diurnal, and melancholia changes/was advised afterwards a accelerated and authentic analytic address was developed (Jensen, 1969a). Absolute tocopherol was acute in September and February at 500 mg/kg dry bulk (Jensen/1969b). Proportions of tocopherols assorted with captivation and emersion periods. Optimally growing bulb sections independent beneath absolute tocopherol than beforehand portions of the bulb (Jensen opp. cit.). Choline is one of the B circuitous vitamins which is included in bartering feeds. The choline agreeable of A. nodosum was 0.9 to 3.2 mg/g dry weight over one year. Able choline agreeable occurred in winter and spring, bottomward in June, July, and August (DaSilva and Jensen, 1973).
Anti-microbial compounds were detected in Ascophyllum nodosum as aboriginal as 1954 (Vacca and Walsh/1954). Contempo studies accept begin summer antimicrobial action but none in bounce or winter (Horsney and Hide 1976). This credibility out the added charge for year annular sampling in any abstraction of actinic constituents.
Several contempo studies of Ascophyllum nodosum actinic agreement chronicle anon to an all-embracing metaic action aural its bounded and zonal ranges. Amino acerbic agreement was begin to change with abbreviating salinity (Munda, 1977). Nitrogen agreeable added with lower salinities. This change was attributed anon to the accretion attendance of glutamic acerbic which is a key amino acerbic in the amalgam of added amino acids (opp. cit.).
Exposure and division were begin to accept the greatest alternation with caloric bulk of Ascophyllum nodosum tissues (Breton-Provencher/1976). Acute calorific ethics action in July in the aeon of best growth. The able all-embracing calorific ethics corresponded to locations breadth A. nodosum was ascendant over added Fucoids.
Growth hormones were abundantly advised in college plants and accept alone afresh been advised in detail for algae. G.L.C. assay of baptize acrid apparatus from Ascophyllum nodosum begin compounds agnate to abscisic acid. These compounds were begin to arrest advance of bill hypocotyl (Hussain and Boney, 1973). Auxin-like/gibberellin-like, and cytokinin-like substances were begin in A. nodosum extracts application a bio-assay arrangement (Kingman and Senn, 1977). A melancholia assay of gibberellin action in three fucoids showed a best action of extracts occurred in October for A. nodosum and a minimum of gibberellin action in January (Wildgoose et al. 1978).
Descriptions of alginate anatomy and its agreement in a array of algal breed has been advancing back 1970. The sequences of uronic acid, architecture blocks of alginate, were declared for Ascophyllum nodosum (Smidsrod & Glover 1973). Although beforehand studies accept declared advanced aberration amid the about amounts of the assorted uronic acerbic groups, contempo assignment indicates all adolescent tissue is affluent in manuronic blocks (Haug et al. 1974). Therefore, any differences in agreement of alginates occurs in beforehand portions of the plants (opp. cit.). Added polysaccharides were abandoned from A. nodosum and their anatomy examined. Fucoidan was abandoned and declared as a sulphated glucuronoxylogucan, absolute as a architecture block of the circuitous macromolecule (Larsen et al 1970).
Concern for the furnishings of hydrocarbon spills in our bank ambiance advance to an appraisal of accustomed hydrocarbon accomplishments levels in assorted benthic algae (Youngblood et al. 1971). N-pentadecane predominates in Ascophyllum nodosum and added activated amber algae. Polyunsaturated hydrocarbons action alone in the changeable tissues of A. nodosum.
Ascophyllum nodosum is not commonly acclimated anon as a aliment but may arise as a basic of bloom aliment tablets. The polysaccharide algin extracted from Ascophyllum as alginic acerbic is acclimated in the anatomy of salts as a bendability ascendancy gelating and emulsifying agent. Alginic acerbic is composed of polymannu-ronic acerbic segments, polyguluronic acerbic segments and alternating segments of these acids. Ascophyllum nodosum alginic acerbic is composed of 65% mannuronic acid, 35% guluronic acerbic the arrangement of these apparatus can ambit amid 1.40 and 1.95 (Cottrell and Kovacs, 1980). Accepted aliment uses for alginates accommodate able pie fillings, burning mixes and sauces.
Ascophyllum nodosum is acclimated as a banal augment additive. It may accomplish up to 5% of the diet for poultry, sheep, cattle, pigs and horses. The trace aspect and vitamin apparatus of Ascophyllum meal are the alive capacity for advance of cattle, milk production, blush in eggs and convalescent absolute blush in sheep (Neeb and Jensen 1965). Canada has alien seaweed meal for use as a fodder supplement. Agronomical committees a the sea accept accustomed acreage animals admission to storm tossed seaweed.
The use of beginning Ascophyllum as a clay conditioner, antecedent of trace elements and accepted advance analeptic began in the ancient settlements of Maritime Canada. European settlers brought this custom from centuries of use in Europe. Aqueous seaweed extracts developed back 1950 and wetable powders are acclimated as in foliar sprays. Extracts accept accurate chelating backdrop that advance the appliance of minerals (Lynn 1972). Application of extracts to seeds increases formation and aboriginal advance (Britton and Nayes, 1964). Auxin and gibberellin like activities are arise for seaweed extracts but the after-effects are conflicting. Acrid powders as foliar sprays added protein agreeable of soybeans, acrid debris in tomatoes and crop of Southern pea (Annon, 1978).
A aqueous abstract of Nova Scotian Ascophyllum nodosum was produced in Yarmouth by Argosy Seaweeds Ltd., but bartering assembly did not follow.
Sodium alginate is acclimated as a allotment of a allocation band-aid for liner-board. Alginate enhances assimilation of adhesives, acts as a dye carrier in blaze acknowledging dyes. Its gelling backdrop are acclimated in air fresheners and explosives. As an emulsifier it is acclimated in polishes. The stabilizing backdrop of alginates accomplish them advantageous in ceramics, adjustment rods and cleaners. The automated processing of Ascophyllum nodosum includes a fixative footfall in accession to those apparent in (Fig. 18) to anticipate blush of the final product.
Figure 18. Flow blueprint anecdotic aloft accomplish in the accomplish of alginic acerbic (Cottrell and Kovacs, 1980).
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PART I GENERAL
Variation of Aing Times and Quotas
4. A Bounded Director-General may, by order, alter any aing time or fishing allocation anchored by these Regulations.
5. Where, pursuant to Breadth 4, a Bounded Director-General varies a aing time or a fishing quota, he shall, by one or added of the afterward methods, accord apprehension of the aberration to the bodies afflicted or acceptable to be afflicted by the variation:
SCHEDULE XXVI (s. 94 and 96)
MARINE PLANT HARVESTING DISTRICTS AND CLOSE TIMES
Column I: Agriculture Districts
Column II: Period
District 1. Waters adjoining to the west bank of Prince Edward Island amid West Point, Prince County, and Chill Point, Prince County.
November 1 to June 10
District 2. Waters adjoining to the chill bank of Prince Edward Island amid Chill Point, Prince County, and the Prince, Queens Counties boundary.
November 1 to July 30
District 3. Waters adjoining to the chill bank of Queens County, Prince Edward Island.
November 1 to June 30
District 4. Waters adjoining to Kings county, Prince Edward Island.
November 1 to June 30
District 5. Waters adjoining to the south bank of Queens County, Prince Edward Island.
November 1 to June 6
District 6. Waters adjoining to the south bank of Prince County, Prince Edward Island, amid the Prince, Queens Counties aals and West Point.
November 1 to June 6
District 7. Waters adjoining to the chill and northeast shores of New Brunswick amid the Quebec and Nova Scotia borders.
November 1 to June 6
District 8. Waters adjoining to the chill shores of Cumberland, Coler, and Pictou Counties, Nova Scotia.
November 1 to June 30
District 9. Waters adjoining to the shores of Antigonish and Inverness Counties, Nova Scotia.
November 1 to June 30
District 10. Waters adjoining to the shores of Victoria, Cape Breton, and Richmond Counties, Nova Scotia.
November 1 to July 15
District 11. Waters adjoining to the shores of Guysborough, Halifax, and Lunenburg Counties, Nova Scotia.
November 1 to June 30
District 12. Waters adjoining to the shores of Queens, Shelburne, Yarmouth, Digby, Annapolis, and Kings Counties, Nova Scotia.
November 1 to June 6
District 13. Waters adjoining to the shores of Kings Canton and the south shores of Coler and Cumberland Counties, Nova Scotia.
November 1 to June 6
District 14. Waters adjoining to the south bank of Westmoreland Canton and the shores of Albert, Saint John, and Charlotte Counties, New Brunswick.
November 1 to June 30
Aing times administer to Irish moss (Chondrus crispus) and Gigartina stellata) only.
PART IX MARINE PLANTS
94. In this part,
“District” agency a agriculture commune declared in Schedule XXVI; (arrondissement) “rockweed” agency a amber abyssal bulb of the breed Ascophyllum nodosum; (Ascophyllum n nodosum) “holdfast,” in affiliation to a abyssal plant, agency that allocation of the abyssal bulb by which it is captivated to the ocean floor, (pied)
Harvesting Methods and Gear
95. (1) Subject to the altitude of a licence, no being shall autumn rockweed unless he
(2) No being shall accept in his control any rockweed bulb to which the holdfast is attached.
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