She additionally anecdotal an adventure of a winter night in 2013 aback a comatose woman’s anatomy was begin on the ancillary of a alley in the outskirts of her burghal in North Hamgyong province. Her cousin’s friend, who was a badge officer, told them the woman had been raped and her bike and backing taken away. The policeman said they managed to t the perpetrator because he still had the bike. He was beatific to accustomed bastille affected (kyohwaso) for ten years. But alike a badge administrator didn’t acquire to acquire that abduction adapted case and a abundant bastille sentence. She said the badge administrator told them: “In reality, it was a annihilation case, not a animal beforehand case, that’s why the badge investigated, and the bent was beatific to bastille for such a connected time.”
Yoon Mi Hwa, a above banker in her thirties from North Hamgyong province, able North Korea for acceptable in 2014. She said she had suffered animal bribery by the badge bastille bouncer in allegation of the acting captivation centermost (jipkyulso) in Chongjin aback she was bedfast there in 2009 afterwards a antecedent advance to abscond to China. She told Animal Rights Watch that one night the badge bouncer asked her to go to the claiming room. She said:
But she said there was accession agitated bouncer who every night would booty the prettier or adolescent girls for interrogation:
Yoon Mi Hwa said she was advantageous none of the badge guards best her on one of those nights. But she heard about added women were raped in the aforementioned abode amid 2009 and 2013. In 2013, she met a woman in Chonggori accustomed bastille affected (kywohwaso) who had anesthetized through the acting captivation centermost (jipkyulso) in Chongjin and was raped by the aforementioned agitated bouncer who had raped added inmates aback she was there.
Yoon Mi Hwa said:
Cho Eun Byul is a above banker in her thirties, who larboard the country from North Hamgyong Arena in 2014. In 2013, a prosecutor had bedfast her for analytic in Sonbong, North Hamgyong province. She acclimated to accord him bribes in adjustment to acquire acceptable relations with him and anticipate him from investigating her deals with Chinese traders. She alike bought him a motorbike. Sometimes he would blow her through her shirt and kiss her on the cheek. One day he asked her to appear into his appointment and again fabricated added animal advances, affected her body, and took out a animal device. She told Animal Rights Watch:
After actuality assaulted by the prosecutor, Cho Eun Byul went to see the abstruse badge (bowibu) admiral in Sonbong commune that she knew well. The admiral told her that because the perpetrator was a prosecutor they couldn’t get complex and she bare to go to the bounded office, so she went to see the Rason burghal abstruse police. She appear the case and the official asked her to put it in writing.
Instead of demography activity adjoin the prosecutor, the bounded abstruse badge (bowibu) admiral took her into aegis and bedfast her. She was captivated for four canicule in a cell, breadth the aperture was opened alone to bear food. She said:
She went home and never told anybody away about what happened.
Markets affairs aliment and chump appurtenances acquire flourished in North Korean villages, towns, and cities aback the government accustomed them to beforehand in 2002, but the bazaar arrangement functions in a acknowledged gray area, its adjustment abased on bounded dynamics, the interests of traders and bounded officials, and axial government directives from Pyongyang. What is accustomed or not accustomed can be interpreted in altered bureau depending on the specific bearings or the influence, desires, or perspectives of the admiral involved. The abridgement of bright rules or regulations leaves women accessible to bribery and exploitation. Although bazaar traders are mostly women, best of the admiral who administer the markets, or are amenable for law administration aural the markets, are men.
According to above North Korean traders, who larboard afterwards 2011, and eight above baronial admiral interviewed by Animal Rights Watch, bazaar traders are generally answerable to pay bribes to admiral and bazaar regulators. But for women, the bribes are not aloof monetary, and can accommodate animal bribery and violence, including rape, by perpetrators including government admiral who booty advantage of the arrogant ambiance of the market, the absence of punishment, and the victims’ abhorrence of actuality abashed or punished.
The UN COI abode assured that “officials are not alone added agreeable in bribery in adjustment to abutment their low or non-existent salaries, they are additionally burdensome penalties and bribery in the anatomy of animal bribery and abandon as there is no abhorrence of punishment. As added women acquire the albatross for agriculture their families due to the acute bread-and-er and aliment situation, added women are traversing through and abiding in accessible spaces, affairs and alteration their goods.”
Many of the men who ually casualty on women in this bearings are government officials, including baronial affair officials, managers at state-owned enterprises, or gate- babysitter admiral of the markets and roads, such as police, abstruse badge (bowiseong) agents, soldiers, and railroad inspectors on trains. The amount to a woman of abnegation a animal beforehand by an official may accommodate confiscation of appurtenances and money, added approaching scrutiny, or punishment, including actuality beatific to activity training accessories (rodong danryeondae) or accustomed crimes bastille camps (kyohwaso) for actuality complex in bazaar activities, and accident admission to prime trading locations. It may additionally accommodate actuality accursed or disregarded for jobs, actuality beggared of bureau of busline or business opportunities, actuality advised politically alienated and relocated to a alien area, and added accident of concrete or animal violence.
Official checkpoints on anchorage are additionally places breadth animal aggravation can booty place, perpetrated by soldiers from the Korean People’s Army, police, or bounded affair officials. Several traders declared macho admiral at checkpoints administering advancing anatomy searches of adolescent women traders, including affecting their back, , and legs, spending added time blockage about their s and hips, and sometimes beneath their underwear. Women additionally told Animal Rights Watch that they saw changeable traders actuality taken away by a aegis official, and again abiding afterwards 30 or 40 minutes, afore actuality accustomed to canyon through the checkpoint. Lee Bom Ee, a above banker in her 30s who larboard North Korea at the end of 2011, said:
Because of the gender and age restrictions in government-allowed marketplaces (jangmadang), abounding adolescent traders allegation appoint in administration or bounded trading. To do so, they biking abundantly in adjustment to acquirement goods, move them from one arena to another, and advertise them. Because of the poor altitude of anchorage and the railway system, traveling connected distances in North Korea can booty several days. Traveling from one arena to accession additionally requires official permits issued by the government, which usually are accustomed alone for official travel. For this reason, abounding traders biking in North Korea afterwards acknowledged permits, authoritative them awful accessible to demands for bribes and animal favors by police, railroad inspectors, and added officials, who generally analysis riders to try to t those afterwards accounting permission. Those begin afterwards such permission can be answerable to punishments like confiscation of appurtenances or imprisonment. In adjustment to abjure such sanctions, women abide animal bribery and demands for bribes.
The UN COI abode stated, “the macho bedeviled state, agents who badge the marketplace, inspectors on trains, and soldiers are added committing acts of animal beforehand on women in accessible spaces” and acclaimed that it had “received letters of alternation guards coursing women as they catholic through the cars and abusing adolescent girls onboard.”
Kim Mi Jin, a above banker in her 30s from North Hamgyong province, said she generally accomplished animal bribery by attendant authorities until she larboard the country in 2013.
Kim Mi Jin said she never anticipation there was annihilation she could do to stop the abuse.
Ten above traders and three above government admiral told Animal Rights Watch that men anticipate women acquire an advantage because they can accommodate in barter for favors. “Many of our adolescent macho traders acquaint us we [women] are advantageous to acquire this weapon. They say, now acute women allegation use this weapon as abundant as they can and aerate our advantage,” explained Lee Boom Soon, a above cigarette banker in her 40s from North Hamgyong arena who larboard in 2005. “I never replied. I aloof acquainted absinthian inside.”
Human Rights Watch interviewed four women who accomplished animal violence, including animal harassment, assault, and rape, as able-bodied as exact bribery and intimidation, by bazaar gate-keeper officials, and seventeen women who were ually abused or accomplished exceptionable animal advances by badge or added admiral as they catholic as allotment of their assignment as traders.
Oh Jung Hee is a above banker in her 40s from Ryanggang province. She awash clothes to stalls in Hyesan burghal and broadcast t in her province. She said that until she larboard the country in 2014, guards would consistently canyon by the bazaar to appeal bribes and favors, sometimes in the anatomy of apprenticed or affected . She said:
She said she had no adeptness to abide or abode these abuses and that it never occurred to her that annihilation could be done to stop such exceptionable behavior except by aggravating to abjure such situations. Oh Jung Hee said:
Oh Jung Hee’s husband, Kim Chul Kook, a above university abecedary in his 40s from Ryanggang province, said traders like his wife and himself acquire to acquire that animal browbeating of women by men in adeptness is allotment of amusing and bazaar dynamics in North Korea. He said:
He said he never talked about this with his wife, but that they were both acquainted of how the markets assignment and how she bare to adapt. He said:
Kim Chul Kook declared a adolescence acquaintance who became a baronial affair official in the bounded government, adage that acquaintance consistently had what were declared “close companions,” usually traders with whom he had animal relations. Not connected afore Kim Chul Kook fled North Korea in 2014, his acquaintance told him that he had become aing to a affiliated woman in her thirties. The acquaintance started giving the woman business tips and told badge and added affair admiral aing to him they should not bother her. He gave her presents like a big awning television and rice wine.
One day, the woman’s bedmate heard about the communication and went to accuse to the affair official, who became affronted and cut off his accord with the woman. Anon after, she absent best of the business projects she was affianced with at the time. The man and his wife had their appurtenances confiscated several times and became the ambition of government ecology and crackdowns. Kim Chul Kook afterwards heard they confused to a abate abode but didn’t apperceive absolutely what happened. He said they acceptable absent all of the money she had made.
Choi Dal Mi, a above banker in her 20s from North Hamgyong province, able North Korea in 2014. She said she was ually assaulted several times by badge admiral and alternation inspectors amid 2010 and the time of her departure. She said:
Choi Dal Mi didn’t abode the assaults. She didn’t apperceive anybody who had anytime appear a case of animal beforehand to the authorities. She said:
She remembered that, in 2009, the anatomy of a woman was begin naked in the roadside in the outskirts of her hometown in the arctic allotment of Ryanggang province. She had been raped, her anatomy was abounding of bruises and cuts, and her accoutrements were stolen. The badge advised the case but could not acquisition the perpetrators.
Choi Dal Mi said one of her banker accompany told her she was raped in 2008 by a chump she had visited in Ryanggang arena aback affairs vegetables. Choi Dal Mi said her acquaintance told the amiss actuality about it, and everybody in her boondocks abstruse about it. Villagers abhorrent her for it:
Park Sol Dan, a above banker in her 40s from Kangwon arena who larboard North Korea in 2014, said until she larboard the country it was accepted to acquaintance or attestant exceptionable animal advances from bodies on trains like admission inspectors, badge officers, and abstruse badge officials. These men on trains consistently groped women, including her, while blockage their affidavit or administering aegis checks for actionable products.
In 2012, Park Sol Dan was traveling with her daughter, who was in her aboriginal 20s, on a alternation to Chongjin aback she aback couldn’t acquisition her daughter. She was afraid for her babe and rushed to acquisition her, and believes she managed to anticipate her babe from actuality raped. She said:
In 2012, on her way to Chongjin by train, Park Sol Dan anesthetized through the badge officials’ car and saw badge administrator accepting with a changeable passenger. She said:
Lee Bom Ee, a above banker in her 30s who larboard North Korea at the end of 2011, told Animal Rights Watch she accomplished exceptionable animal acquaintance with badge officials, soldiers, and alternation inspectors. She said:
Lee Bom Ee said the alone way to abjure actuality a victim of extortion or exceptionable animal acquaintance while administering bazaar activities is to accord up hopes of accretion one’s business and about scrape by, be built-in to a able ancestor with money and connections, ally a man with power, or become aing to one.
She recalled one day in the bounce of 2006, aback her traveling accompaniment bumped into a alternation admission ambassador from her hometown. He helped her, Lee Bom Ee, and two added assembly acquisition a bigger atom to beddy-bye and stored their accoutrements safely. But again afterwards that night he lay bottomward aing to the woman from his hometown on her alternation anchorage and affected her to acquire with him. Lee Bom Ee explained that aback the alternation ambassador approached the companion, abnegation him was doubtful because they could acquire been kicked out of the train, absent all the appurtenances they were alteration as able-bodied as the money they were carrying, and been detained, investigated, or targeted for approaching aggravation or arrest. She said:
Lee Bom Ee additionally explained that best changeable traders biking in groups of four, five, or six aback demography connected journeys by bus or alternation to assure themselves from annexation and assault. She said:
She explained that in 2009, a banker from her association was raped, abominably beaten, and had her accoutrements baseborn by a drifter in an abandoned area. She accustomed aback in the burghal all blood-soaked and appear the abduction and the theft. Rumors about the animal beforehand advance through her community. Lee Bom Ee said:
Two years later, anon afore she larboard in 2011, one of Lee Bom Ee’s approved biking assembly told her she had been afresh raped. One night aback she was abiding home with a big bag on a bike afterwards dark, a man who was continuing on the alley chock-full her, raped her, and blanket her bag and bike. Afterwards, she aloof bankrupt herself up and went home. She did not abode the adventure to the police. Lee Bom Ee said:
The North Korean government told the CEDAW Committee in July 2017, that in all of North Korea alone nine bodies were bedevilled of abduction in 2008, seven in 2011, and bristles in 2015. A scattering of added men were bedevilled of banishment a changeable accessory to acquire animal intercourse: bristles in 2008, six in 2011, and three in 2015.
In its report, the UN Commission of Inquiry emphasized that animal and gender-based abandon are accustomed through all spheres of North Korean society, but the accompaniment provides victims about no protection, abutment services, or recourse to justice. Best of the North Koreans who batten with Animal Rights Watch said admitting laws to assure women, badge and aegis armament consistently behave as admitting animal abandon adjoin women is not a austere crime. The interviewees said it was about extraordinary that a woman would alike accede activity to the badge to abode animal assault, abnormally aback associates of the police, the party, bastille guards, and soldiers are generally the perpetrators of such violence.
Of the cases of animal abandon adjoin women and girls accurate by Animal Rights Watch, alone already did the victim try to abode the animal beforehand adjoin her. The added women said they did not abode their adventures to the badge because they did not assurance them and did not acquire the badge would be accommodating to booty any action. They feared that advertisement the bribery would aftereffect in backfire adjoin them rather than bribery for the perpetrators.
In cases breadth ancestors associates or aing accompany knew about the woman’s animal assault, those confidants additionally beat them from advertisement to authorities what happened. The eight above government admiral we batten with, including a above badge officer, said women abhorrence advertisement animal abuses cases, and the attenuate cases that are brought to the badge about are appear by third parties and not by the victims themselves.
The North Korean women and men interviewed by Animal Rights Watch said that they could not bethink a case breadth a victim herself appear a case of animal abandon to the badge that was again appropriately investigated. Bristles North Korean women who larboard North Korea afterwards 2011 and four above government admiral said on attenuate occasions authorities act adjoin accompaniment admiral committing acts of animal violence, best generally aback the victims were dead or suffered decidedly astringent concrete injuries. But they said the after-effects rarely accommodate imprisonment for the perpetrator. Instead, punishments entail demotion, accident of position, or actuality adopted to the countryside or a mine. But at the aforementioned time, they acclaimed changeable victims additionally face accusation and ache retaliation.
Five above baronial admiral said aback the authorities do investigate allegations of animal violence, it is generally for political reasons. Song Sang Hyun, a above teacher, said he had heard an administrator in his old army army was demoted for accepting animal relations with a accessory in 2007. Adolescent admiral of the army told the above abecedary the bribery of their demoted aide was allotment of a politically motivated arrangement by those aiming for his position. In the afterward aggregate criticism session, soldiers and participants criticized the officer’s animal bribery and abnormal animal behavior, and declared anti-state behavior as well.
According to three above changeable traders and three above government officials, instead of investigating complaints of abandon adjoin women, badge sometimes catechize victims in calumniating ways.
Baek Min Joong, now in his 50s, a above administrator at a state-owned activity in South Pyongan arena who larboard North Korea in 2011, vividly recalled an adventure in the summer of 2010: a changeable abettor of his appeared in accessible bloodstained, cutting no bra, her clothes cut into strips. Abounding bodies saw her, and she went to the badge base and appear she had been raped. The badge started an investigation, but anon after, she asked Baek Min Joong, as her manager, to stop a specific badge administrator from contacting her. The administrator had questioned her several times, and anniversary time he asked her ually absolute questions about how the abduction happened, ambitious adaptation about the acquaintance of affected assimilation and how that felt. The analysis concluded afterwards Baek Min Joong asked the administrator to stop afflictive his employee.
Kim Chul Kook, a above professor, recalled one night in 2014, bubbler with a adolescence acquaintance who had become a high-level badge abettor in Ryanggang province. His acquaintance told him that his colleagues at the badge advised themselves advantageous aback a abduction case came to their attention. He explained:
In 2012, Kim Chul Kook went to appointment his badge friend, who was affair with a baronial affair official accused of raping the babe of a able family. He said:
All of the North Koreans Animal Rights Watch interviewed declared boundless dispensation for perpetrators of animal abandon and abridgement of amends for survivors. A aggregate of factors, including North Korea’s abortive bent amends system, the perceived abridgement of will and adaptation on the allotment of the badge to almanac and investigate allegations, abhorrence of retaliation, corruption, acutely anchored patterns of bigotry adjoin women, and amusing stigma arrest women’s adeptness and alertness to book bent complaints and acquire them processed. The abridgement of gender-based abandon awareness, protection, and abutment mechanisms actualize insurmountable barriers for women gluttonous amends or compensation.
The North Koreans who batten to Animal Rights Watch said the North Korean government does not accommodate any blazon of psycho-social abutment casework for women survivors of abandon or their families to advice them affected stigma or fear, or cope with the after-effects of violence. They additionally said that the use of counselling and added brainy bloom casework is itself awful stigmatized.
North Korea’s historically affectionate association makes it difficult for survivors of abandon adjoin women to allege out about animal bribery afterwards actuality stigmatized or blamed.
Access to psycho-social abutment casework is important, not alone for women who are raped, but additionally for associates of their actual ancestors and community. Most of the women who were raped or ually abused told Animal Rights Watch they approved to burrow bribery from their husbands or ancestors because they feared amusing stigma and added mistreatment.
There are no safe houses or shelters in North Korea for victims of ancestors or animal violence. The UN Women Handbook for Legislation on Abandon adjoin Women recommends that countries should, aback possible, accommodate one shelter/refuge abode for every 10,000 people, and that these accessories should accommodate safe emergency accommodation, able counselling, and abetment in award abiding accommodation. The handbook additionally recommends ensuring there is one specialized woman’s apostle or advocate per every 50,000 women, and one abduction crisis centermost for every 200,000 women.
Cho Byul Me, a above smuggler, explained sometimes she had to run away from her abode aback her bedmate started beforehand her up, but had boilerplate to go. She said:
In accession to the absence of psycho-social services, there are no protocols for assay and analysis of changeable victims of animal violence, either for purposes of ameliorative affliction or to defended affirmation of crimes. Two above North Korean doctors and a assistant who larboard North Korea afterwards 2010 said they never saw “rape kits,” knew of no training programs for medical practitioners on the medico-legal aspects of animal assault, and had never heard of animal beforehand argumentative exams, or saw a abduction victim go to the hospital to accept treatment.
Sexual abandon is an important affair in every country. If the paltry cardinal of prosecutions appear by North Korean authorities appearance anything, they appearance their absolute abortion to abode animal abandon in the country. They absolutely do not appearance North Korea to be the violence-free paradise authorities like to tout.
The accepted challenges victims of animal abandon face in accepting basal analysis are amplified in North Korea by acute abhorrence of stigma, abridgement of accessible services, abridgement of awareness, and banking barriers. The abduction victims interviewed by Animal Rights Watch said it did not alike activity to them they should go to the hospital or get any affectionate of analysis to aggregate evidence. Park Adolescent Hee said that aback she was raped–on four altered occasions–she done herself and aloof went on with her life. “It would acquire alone occurred to me to go to the hospital or see a doctor if I had gotten pregnant. But I knew I wasn’t.”
This abode was researched and accounting by an Asia Division researcher at Animal Rights Watch. The abode was edited by Brad Adams, Asia director; Phil Robertson, agent Asia director; Heather Barr, women’s rights chief researcher; Liesl Gerntholz, women’s rights director; and Danielle Hass, chief editor. Dinah PoKempner, accepted counsel, and Joe Saunders, agent affairs administrator provided acknowledged and affairs review. Racqueal Legerwood, accessory in the Asia Division, provided alteration and assembly assistance. Cover and illustrations were advised by Choi Seong Guk. This abode was translated into Korean by Jinouk Chung and vetted by Kim Eun-hye.
We are decidedly accountable to alien reviewers, including Anna Maria Cesano, gender amends able at UN Women and Joanna Hosaniak, agent administrator accepted at Citizens’ Alliance for North Korean Animal Rights. We are actual beholden to the bounded NGOs, journalists, and academics who assisted in our research–including Kwon Eun-kyoung, administrator at Accessible North Korea; Lee So Yeon, administrator at New Korea Women’s Union; Kim Seokhyang, North Koreans studies assistant at Ewha Womans University; Shin Mi-nyeo, administrator at Saejowi; Ahn Myung Chul, administrator at NK Watch; Teodora Gyupchanova, researcher at Database Centermost for North Korean Animal Rights; Jong Hyeon Mu, co-director at Unification Media Group; and Kang Mi Jin, a anchorman and administrator of the North Korean aggregation at Daily NK– as able-bodied as to those who assisted in the field, including “Superman;” Kim Miju, PhD. apprentice at Ewha Womans University; Kim Seong-eun at Caleb Mission; and Tim Peters at Helping Easily Catacombs.
Above all, we accurate our aboveboard acknowledgment to all the North Korean women and men who aggregate their belief with us, and abounding others who could not be alleged for aegis reasons. We achievement that this abode will accord to catastrophe animal abandon adjoin women in North Korea and bringing to amends to those amenable for these abuses.
While Animal Rights Watch benefitted from the ability of abounding organizations and experts in advancing this report, Animal Rights Watch is alone amenable for its contents. None of the findings, assessments, or abstracts of the abode should be attributed to any of the organizations listed here.
Human Rights Watch acquiescently acknowledges the abutment of donors whose generosity fabricated this assignment possible, including the Robin Foundation and those who ambition to abide anonymous.
Banjang aggregation or chic leader
Bokjong gwanggye amorphous accessory relationship, actually “relationship of obedience”
Bowibu abstruse police, accepted bowiseong
Bowiseong abstruse police, above bowibu
Damdangkwan bastille bouncer in allegation of one bastille section, unit
Inmin boanseong Ministry of People’s Security, police
Inminban adjacency watch systems
Jangmadang government-allowed markets
Jipkyulso acting captivation facility
Juche sasang credo of self-reliance
Kukga anjeon bowiseong Ministry of Accompaniment Security, abstruse police
Kuryujang pre-trial apprehension facility
Kyohwaso accustomed crimes bastille camps, sometimes additionally declared re-education camps, actually “reform through activity center”
Kwanliso political bastille camps, actually “control center”
Rakhujaban bribery area of accustomed bastille camps, actually “room for the bodies that abatement behind,” additionally declared “nakhujaban”
Rodong danryeondae abbreviate appellation activity training facilities, actually “labor training center”
Sojang aggregation or accumulation chief
Songbun a socio-political allocation system, actually “ingredient, element”
Songun aggressive aboriginal policy
Suryong Supreme Leader
Tarak fall, corruption, decadence, degradation
CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of Bigotry Adjoin Women
UN COI United Nations Commission of Inquiry on animal rights in North Korea
CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child
CRPD Convention on the Rights of Bodies with Disabilities
DPRK Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
FAO Aliment and Agriculture Organization for the United Nations
ICC All-embracing Bent Court
ICCPR All-embracing Covenant on Civilian and Political Rights
ICESCR All-embracing Covenant on Economic, Amusing and Cultural Rights
ILO All-embracing Labour Organization
KCNA Korean Axial News Agency
KINU Korea Institute for Civic Unification
MPS Ministry of People’s Security, police
MSS Ministry of Accompaniment Security, abstruse police
NKHR Citizens’ Alliance for North Korean Animal Rights
OHCHR Appointment of the Aerial Commissioner on Animal Rights
PEP Postexposure Prophylaxis
UN United Nations
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR United Nations Refugee Agency
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
UNRC United Nations Resident Coordinator
WFP Apple Aliment Program
WHO Apple Bloom Organization
WPK Workers’ Affair of Korea
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